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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, 

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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



THE SLOYD SYSTEM 



WOOD WORKING 



WITH A liUIEF DESCRIPTION (tFTHE EVA KODIIE MODEL SEIUES 

AND AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE CROWTH 

OF THE MANUAL TRAINING IDEA 



B. B. HOFFMAN, A.B. 

SUPEKINTENDENT OF TUB BARON DE HIKSCII FUND TUADE 8CUOOLS 



- JUL 2^ 






NEW YUUK • ■ CINCINNATI ■:• CIHCAGO 

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 






COPYKIOHT, 1893, BY 

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY. 



Press of J. J. Little & Co. 
Astor I'lace, New York 



/- '3/VOl 



PREFACE. 



The object of this book is to give an account 
of the tlieoiy and practical application of the 
" Niliis System" of manual training. Although 
the principles upon which this system has been 
founded are very fully explained in the two 
educational monographs of the New York 
College for the Training of Teachers, entitled 
" The Sloyd in the Service of the School," by 
Otto Salamon, and " Manual Training in Ele- 
mentary Schools for Boys," by A. Slu3^s, a full 
exposition of the subject as taught in the Niiiis 
Sloyd Seminarium, and as incorporated in the 
Swedish public schools, has not as yet appeared. 
The author hopes that the following chapters 
may in a measure supply this want. 

In the chapter on the practical work, as few 
technical expressions as possible have been used, 
so that a teacher who may have had no previous 
experience in work of this kind may neverthe- 
less be able to follow out a course of manual 

5 



G PREFACE 

training in wood-work without any outside assist- 
ance. 

Chapter III. is a translation of Book V. of 
Director Otto Salamon's " Sloyd och Follvskola" 
C'Sloyd and the Public School"), which gives an 
account of the history of the manual training 
idea. Chapter VI. is a translation of Mr. Sala- 
mon's article on Sloyd in the "Nordeska Familie 
Bok" ("Northern Encyclopedia"). 

The book also includes a list and drawings 
of the models of the Eva Rodlie System for 
children of the age of five to eleven years. In 
the " Pratiska Arbetskolan " (" Practical Working 
School") in Gothenburg, this system has been 
taught for a number of years, and has met with 
considerable success, filling the void between the 
Kindergarten and the " Naas System." 

The author desires to express his sincere 
thanks to Director Otto Salamon, Mr. Alfred 
Johannson, Mr. Jacob Hyberg of Niiiis, SAveden, 
and to Mr. George E. Tuthill of New York, 
for valuable assistance in the preparation of 
this work. 



CONTENTS. 

Chapter Page 

I. The Theory of the Sloyd System of Wood- Working 9 

The Need for Manual Training ... 9 

Various Systems of Manual Training 12 

A Love for Work 23 

Respect for Rough Bodily Labor 25 

Self-reliance and Independence 26 

Ordei' and Exactness 28 

Attention 29 

Industry and Perseverance 30 

Physical Power 31 

The Chest, Head, and Feet 34 

Position in Sawing and Planing 35 

To Train the Eye to the Sense of Form 30 

General Dexterity of Hand 36 

II. Special Arrangements of the Sloyd 39 

Many Forms of Manual Work 39 

Arrangement of the Models 44 

Tools 45 

Age of Pupils, Length of Lessons, etc 46 

Who shall be the Teacher ." 47 

Individual and Class Teaching 48 

7 



8 CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

HI. The History of Manual Training 53 

Development of the Idea in Europe 53 

IV. Alfred Johannson's Nilas Model Series 91 

Otto Salamon's Introduction 91 

The Naiis Models 90 

Fundamental Series. 101 

Town Elementary Series ... 191 

High School Series 201 

V. Eva Rodhe's Model Scries 219 

Introduction 219 

The Eva Rodhe Models 223 

VI. The Progi'ess of the Sloyd in the Elementary Scliools 235 

Extension of the Movement in Europe and America 235 



CHAPTER I. 

THE THEORY OF THE SLOYD SYSTEM OF 
WOOD-WORKING. 



THE NEED FOR MANUAL TRAINING. 

rpiHAT book-training alone is not sufficient to 
-L educate the child is shown by the fact that 
during the past twenty years, throughout both 
Europe and America, various systems of handi- 
craft work have been introduced in the schools 
as part of the elementary school instruction, 
educators and teachers in all countries liavino- 
found something lacking in the ordinary form 
of public education. 

They saw that the youth, who, after leaving 
the school, started out to make his own living, 
was in many cases quite unable to do so, and 
naturally the question arose : " Is the present form 
of public education of a nature calculated to fit 
the child for a useful career in life? If not, what 
reforms can be instituted so that the school 



10 THEORY OF THE SLOYD SYSTEM 

instruction will be better able to meet the exigen- 
cies of life and the demands of the times ? " 

In all educational circles these questions have 
been discussed; and, as a direct result, we find 
that different systems of manual training have 
been applied as remedies. 

The chief arguments, and those which have 
greatly influenced the adoption of some of the 
present European systems of manual training, 
are the so-called " Economic " and the " Educa- 
tional " arguments. 

(3n the one hand, the " Educational " advocates 
urged that in order to systematically develop the 
natural forces it was necessary, from a psycho- 
logical point of view, to try to give to the child 
the ability to express objects by means of delin- 
eation and construction, and thus to add to the 
power of mere verbal description. In other 
words, " It is more natural for the boy to be able 
to draw a sphere, or to make one out of wood 
or clay, than to understand the geometrical defi- 
nition of a sphere." 

On the other hand, the " Economic " argument 
was l)ased more particularly upon the social and 
industrial benefits to l)e derived from the training. 

To the " Economic " arc;umcnt was added the 
" Physiological." The researches of Hughlings, 



THE NEED FOR MANUAL TRAINING 11 

Jackson, and Ferrier were frequently quoted. 
Their experiments proved that the brain is not, 
as was formerly supposed, a single organ acting 
as a whole, but a congeries of organs capable of 
more or less independent action. 

In speaking of these experiments, and their 
connection with early manual education, a recent 
writer says : ''As the development of the motor 
centers in the brain hinges, in a great degree, 
upon the movements and exercises of youth, it 
will be readily understood how important is the 
nature of the part played by the early exercise 
of the hand in evoking inherited skill and in 
creating the industrial capabilities of a nation. 

''There can be no doubt that the most active 
epoch in the development of these motor centers 
is from the fourth to the fifteenth year, after 
which they become comparatively fixed and stub- 
born. Hence it can be understood that bo^^s and 
girls whose hands have been left altogether un- 
trained up to the fifteenth year are practically 
incapable of high manual efficiency thereafter." 

The " Economic " advocates stated, furthermore, 
that by cramming the children's heads full of 
l)Ook-studies, and by withholding from them the 
exercise of their hands, the skill of a future race 
of mechanics was being destroyed. 



12 THEORY OF THE SLOT!) SYSTEM 

VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF MANUAL TRAINING. 

Of the various systems of manual training that 
have been introduced in the elementary public 
schools of Europe, the Delia Vos in Russia, the 
Sctlicis in France, and the Sloyd in Sweden, Nor- 
way, Denmark, Finland, and recently in special 
schools in England, Germany, Belgium, and Italy, 
are the most prominent. 

The French system, under the name of JJen- 
seignement da Travail Manuel, was made compul- 
sory in the public schools in 1882. 

It was mainly due to tlie efforts of M. Buisson, 
Director of Primary Instruction, that in this year 
a special normal school was created in France, 
in which wood-working at the bench and lathe, 
iron-working in the smithery, with vise and 
turning-lathe, drawing, modeling, molding, and 
graphic designing were the principal subjects of 
instruction. Experimental physics, chemistry, 
natural history, fencing, and fire-practice were 
likewise taught. 

This institution was founded after a vote liad 
been taken in the Chamljer of Deputies, in 
March of 1882. Admission was granted by com- 
petition to forty-eight school-teachers, graduates 
of the University de France. It was a one-year 



VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF MANUAL TRAINING 13 

course. To-day we find that each year about 
fifteen hundred students are being graduated from 
the various normal schools in France. 

" In fifteen years," said the late Inspector- 
General A. Salicis, " nearly all our primary high 
schools, and most of our forty thousand elemen- 
tary schools for boys ought to provide our 
2,750,000 male children of the working classes 
with the instruction which will fit them for 
the future they have in store. If we do not 
speak of the girls, it is because they have already, 
to a certain extent, a suitable primary course 
in manual training, consisting of needlework, 
cutting out, and dressmaking." 

The object of this system is clearly expressed 
in the words of the French minister of public 
instruction : " The love for work can only come 
through the habit of working ; and, reciprocall}'^, 
the habit of work can only come by implanting 
the love for it." 

In short, from this early acquired taste should 
be engendered a precocious ability — an indis- 
pensable condition of future excellency, and 
consequently a condition of economic success in 
foreign markets. 

In 1868 a systematic method of teaching the 
arts of turning, carpentering, fitting, and forging 



14 THEORY OF TUE SLOTD SYSTEM 

was introduced in the Imperial School at Mos- 
cow, under the directorship of Victor Delia Vos. 
These arts were taught because they were con- 
sidered to be the foundation of all mechanical 
pursuits. 

Furthermore, the school council, who inaugu- 
rated this system, found it necessary to separate 
the school shops from the mechanical works, ad- 
mitting pupils to the latter only when they had 
perfectly acquired the principles of practical labor. 
Tliis was done in order to secure a symmetrical 
teaching of elementary practical work, as well 
as for the more convenient supervision of the 
pupils while practically employed. It is the first 
known instance of such an arrangement. 

Tlie primary object of the Russian method 
was to teach the child manual work, if not 
directly for the purpose of fitting him for a 
future vocation in the arts or trades, at least in 
order to make him more capable, in case he 
should select some mechanical pursuit as his 
future work in life. 

Since 1872 the stud}^ of the Sloyd in the 
Folkskola (public school) of Sweden has created 
tlie most intense interest. The Sloyd, a S3^stem 
of manual training in wood and metal work, is 
taught as an optional study in fifteen hundred 



VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF MANUAL TRAINING 15 

schools in Sweden to boys of the age of ten to 
fourteen years. 

At the present time, the JSfdas System, arranged 
by Otto Salanion, director of tlie Nails Normal 
College, has been universally adopted. This has 
been called the Sloyd System. Its object is solely 
educational. The faults of the old method of 
teaching only theoretical subjects being recognized, 
the best ideas of the teachers in this field were stud- 
ied, and a method was formulated which combines 
hand and head work in the simplest way possible. 

The word system is meant to convey the idea of 
a plan running through the work, which rests on 
a scientific basis and holds good for those classes 
for which it is intended. 

In speaking of the Sloyd System, it is necessary 
not to confound the Sloyd series of models with 
the system itself. The two are entirely distinct. 
A series of models is never more than the outward 
expression of an idea. Models of almost any 
kind could be constructed upon the princi])les 
that underlie those of the Naas series, and, though 
very different in form, they might have equal 
educational advantages, and might even be more 
applicable in certain instances. It is from the 
point of view of the system that the models 
should be judged. 



16 THEORY OF THE SLOTD SYSTEM 

The word Sloyd (Swedish, /Slojd) is derived 
from the Icelandic, and means dexterity or skill. 
In old Swedish, we find the adjective slog (artis- 
tic or skillful). In the Low German dialect, the 
word Kl'utern has a similar signification. There 
is in Sweden a distinct class of workmen known 
as Sloyders, whom we would call "jacks of all 
trades," as they are able to do various kinds of- 
odd jobs about a house. The Swedish word 
Slojd exists in other languages, but has a more 
restricted meaning, referring to the educational 
idea. In English it is synonymous with manual 
training as distinct from technical and indus- 
trial training. 

The problem which confronted the educators 
was how to create a manual training system 
which would be a true factor in public education. 
Pul)lic education is designed to be a systematic 
infiuence for the good, exercised by the teacher 
upon the minds and characters of the pupils ; it 
aims to make them more fit to cope with the 
difficulties of life, and thus to make them use- 
ful and honorable members of the community. 
Would manual training be of material aid in this 
direction ? 

The immediate object of all })ublic education 
being thus defined, teachers came to the conclu- 



VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF MANUAL TRAINING 17 

sion that the instruction should be imparted not 
only for the sake of the actual knowledge to be 
derived, most of which must of necessity in time 
be forgotten, but principally as a means of devel- 
oping the character. 

At one time it was thought best to allow the 
liome influence to be the sole guide in the forma- 
tion of character, but the error of such a course 
became evident when it was considered that it 
was impossible to determine whether the home 
influence would be exerted for the good or for 
the evil. Again, tlie duties of the parents were 
found at times to be of such a nature as to 
prevent their giving the proper attention to the 
education of their children. 

It was therefore decided that the work of ele- 
vating each life should be carried on in the school, 
where the child is competing all the time for 
some desired goal, and consequently soon begins 
to feel the necessity of knowing and doing. 

He feels this in the school even more than in 
the home ; for the school is to the child like a 
little world, which has much in common with 
the larger one for which he is preparing him- 
self. It therefore becomes the duty of the school 
to train the heart, the mind, and the body har- 
moniously. 



18 THEORY OF THE HLOYD SYtiTEM 

Since the work of the school is so important, 
and since the entire school life of most children 
must be limited to a period of from six to eight 
years, it seemed desirable that the school should 
arrange its course of study and its methods of 
instruction in such a Avay that each subject would 
be a means of educational development. Any 
subject which did not fulfill this requirement was 
not to be taught. No subject was to be taught 
simply for the sake of imparting information. 

By experiment it Avas found that manual work 
tended to develop character, mind, and body, and 
that it gave such information as was necessary 
and useful after the school period was passed, 
increasing in each individual the capacity for 
work. It was therefore decided that it should 
hold a place among the school studies. 

We must now distinguish between the general 
object of all systems of manual training, and the 
special purposes to be served by the system here 
under consideration. 

The object of introducing manual training into 
the puldic schools is well defined by Prof. C. M. 
Woodward, when he says : " We do not wish to 
make mechanics. We teach banking, not because 
we expect our pupils to become bankers ; we teach 
drawing, not because we expect to train architects, 



VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF MANUAL TRAINING 19 

artists, or engineers ; and we teach the use of 
tools, the properties of materials, and the meth- 
ods of the arts, not because we expect our boys 
to become artisans. We teach them the United 
States Constitution and some of the Acts of Con- 
gress, not because we expect them all to become 
congressmen. But we do expect that our boys 
will, at least, have something to do with bankers, 
and architects, and artists, and engineers, and 
artisans ; and we do expect all to become good 
citizens. Our great object is educational ; other 
objects are secondary." 

The Sloyd has for its first object* to give an 
indirect preparation for life by teaching branches 
of certain trades and by imparting a general 
dexterity to the hand — to train the hand as the 
obedient servant of the brain. 

The Swedes set out to accomplish this by teach- 
ing the boys in the schools the rudiments of 
special trades; they discarded that system some 
years ago, adopting the present one in its stead. 

* These are the aims of the Sloyd instruction as set forth 
by Director Otto Salamon in his lectures. It will of course be 
understood that any statement of results to be achieved must 
in a great measure be conditional ; yet the object of the work, 
and the probable effects, must surely be best known to him 
who has arranged the course, and who has daily watched its 
effects upon the minds and characters of many hundreds of 
children. 



30 THEORY OF THE SLOYl) SYSTEM 

Experience taught them that the boy was not old 
enough to know what ])articular trade he should 
choose. Again, usually only one trade could be 
taught, and this, of course, did not accomplish 
the aim with which the instruction was given. 
From a practical point of view, any one of the 
important trades is as necessary as the other. 

It was impossible to teach any one trade thor- 
oughly in so short a time as could be devoted 
to it at scliool ; and, as a result, many children 
left the scliool impressed Avith the false notion 
that they were competent workmen. How fatal 
such a spirit was, need hardly be stated. 

The second object of the Sloyd is to develop 
the mental faculties, and at the same time to im- 
})art positive useful information. As Froebel had 
provided a system which gave expression to this 
idea by creating the kindergarten, and as he had 
felt that this was a principle which would regu- 
late every step in tiie child's education, so it is to 
this end, also, that the Sloyd aims. 

It embraces the doctrine which educators and 
teachers have been preaching for a long time — 
that of giving a practical direction to mental 
activity. IMan is not only born to think, but 
also to do. He is a creative animal; he can 
and must embody his ideas in form. 



VARIOUS SYSTE3IS OF MANUAL TRAINING 21 

The third object of the Sloyd is to make it a 
means of intensifying intuitions, tliereby giving 
a clearer insight into the nature of things. As 
Herbart desired to see instruction more concen- 
trated, all the subjects closely interwoven, the 
one serving to aid in the comprehension of the 
other — so the Sloyd, in combining the theo- 
retical and practical, by teaching the elements of 
the arts and sciences, and the method of con- 
struction and illustration, aims to excite the 
intuitive faculty. 

It is hardly likely that the efforts of a child 
will be -adequate to j)rovide accurate scientific 
apparatus to be used in the class-room, but the 
making of oljjects directly connected with the 
theoretical studies will increase the interest in 
the Avork and excite new ideas. 

Sloyd aims to cultivate dexterity in the manip- 
ulation of tools. This is considered as one of its 
secondary aims. Too much stress must not be 
laid upon the use of tools, as the pupil is apt to 
lose interest in the work if he does not see a full 
and quick result for his labor. 

In France, at one time, the children were taught 
various exercises in the use of tools, and models 
were not made at all. In the Danish system, the 
making of models is considered of quite second- 



22 THEORY OF THE SLOYD SYSTEM 

ary importance. Very few are made, and these 
only because they necessitate certain useful exer- 
cises of the tools. The use of many tools should 
be taught, but should serve rather as a means 
than an end to this instruction. 

Primarily Sloyd is to be used as a means of 
formal education — formal as opposed to material. 
A material education seeks to impart a definite 
knowledge of things for their own sake. A for- 
mal education seeks chieliy to develop the innate 
mental powers, and selects and imparts knowledge 
in order to strengthen character, will-power, mem- 
ory, perception — in short, all of those faculties of 
the mind which at birth are dormant, and which 
gradually and through education become to a 
greater or lesser degree marked characteristics of 
the individual. 

All subjects can be used both for material and 
formal instruction — some more, some less. His- 
tory and science give material information ; and 
yet, if the teacher seeks to arouse the imaginative 
faculty, or to inspire a love and sympathy for 
humanity, a formal training is thereby added. 
The child when he studies his history lessons 
sees that among the first causes of a nation's 
welfare may be traced the underlying principle 
of order. Again, as he becomes acquainted with 



A LOVE FOR WORK ^3 

tlie elements of the sciences, and as he begins 
to understand the workings of nature's laws, a 
desire to systematize and arrange things in a 
rational and orderly manner takes possession of 
liis mind. Mathematics and gymnastics are of 
more value as formal than as material means 
of education, as the former develops the reasoning 
faculty, while the latter strengthens the body. 
Materialists believe in giving a knowledge of the 
actual things met with in life, while the formalists 
lay stress upon the cultivation of correct habits. 

Sloycl has for its aims, as a means of formal 
instruction — to instil a love for work in gene- 
ral ; to create a respect for rough, honest bodily 
labor ; to develop self-reliance and independence ; 
to train to habits of order, exactness, cleanliness, 
and neatness; to teach habits of attention, indus- 
try, and perseverance ; to promote the develop- 
ment of the physical powers ; to train the eye 
to the sense of form, and to cultivate the dex- 
terity of the hand. 

A LOVE FOR WORK. 

No child can enjoy a healthy happiness without 
doing some work. Most children are inquisitive, 
and want to know facts about the objects they 
see and handle. As an infant, the child con- 



24 THEORY OF THE SLOYD SYSTEM 

stantly moves, and grasps at everything that lie 
sees ; and, as he grows older, lie shows similar 
impulses in his delight in building, constructing, 
and destroying objects. 

In order to bring about a love for work, it is 
necessary that the work be useful, otherwise it 
will soon become tiresome. The work should not 
require wearisome preparatory exercises ; this is 
apt to cause the distaste which we have often seen 
among apprentices to the various trades. The 
Avork must afford variety — not necessarily nov- 
elty, but there must be a change, and not too 
much of one thing at a time. 

The children must be capable of doing the 
entire work themselves, for they feel happy only 
when they can feel and say that they have done 
it all themselves. The teacher must refrain from 
forcing a child to accept much unnecessary assist- 
ance. To help the child to overcome all the diffi- 
culties which will necessarily arise, and then to 
permit him to claim the work as his own, encour- 
ages him to deceive others, and, worse than that, 
leads him to deceive himself. 

The work must be real, and not ''play at work.'' 
If the occupation has no serious importance, but 
is merely given to keep the children busy and 
out of mischief, the true educational value is lost. 



RESPECT FOR ROUGH BODILY LABOR 25 

Finally, the work, when finished, must become 
the property of the child, for he has j)urchased 
the right to it with his own labor. 

From the outset, the child must be shown the 
true nature of the work, so that he will do it vol- 
untarily and in a proper spirit. M. Pizzurno trans- 
lates from an Italian pamphlet into French the 
following passage : '' It is not possible to produce 
in facsimile a pattern of every article we make ; 
but it is important that a thing be done as accu- 
rately as possible from the outset, and the earlier 
we teach the child this, the better it will be in 
the end." 

RESPECT FOR ROUGH BODILY LABOR. 

We no longer absolutely despise hard bodily 
labor as we did a century ago, Avhen to do noth- 
ing was considered more honorable than to work ; 
yet even to-day we attach a certain stigma of 
inferiority to all forms of bodily labor. In the 
social world, the clerk ranks higher than the 
skilled artisan, and the workmen themselves are 
only too apt to consider that their labor is less 
honorable than that of their masters. 

This perverted idea may be a survival of 
the opinion that prevailed in the middle ages, 
when all rough work was done by serfs. The 



26 THEORY OF THE SLOYD SYSTE3I 

lal)or question is one of the important prob- 
lems of our times. We know that there are 
many causes at work which sow discord be- 
tween capitalists and laborers. Would it not 
be a step taken in the right direction if each 
child in the rising generation could be in- 
spired with a true respect for rough physical 
labor, so that as workman he could find con- 
tentment in his vocation, and as capitalist he 
would not undervalue the true worth of his 
artisans? We cannot make children respect 
rough labor unless we let them take part in it 
themselves. 

To inspire the child with a respect for rough 
labor, the models produced must not be fancy 
knick-knacks or articles of luxury. If taught 
only to do fancy and decoration work, ho may be 
inclined to regard I'ougher forms of labor as of 
inferior dignity. 

SELF-RELIANCE AND INDEPENDENCE. 

It is of the utmost importance that we help the 
cliild to utilize that which he knows, and force 
liim to give some visible expression and some 
practical application to the information he has 
acquired. Here is one of the teacher's most 
difficult tasks. There are many i)eople possessed 



SELF-RELIANCE AND INDEPENDENCE 27 

of much knowledge, who totally lack the power 
of applying it. 

Home lessons are intended to test the children's 
power of working alone, but they often fail to 
accomplish this object, because some parents allow 
their children to neglect their home work, while 
others provide private teachers. Even in tlie 
class-room, it is often difficult to get clear answers 
without occasionally prompting and helping the 
children. 

By means of the Sloyd, however, it is very 
easy for the teacher to set a certain task to ha 
performed, and to detect and prevent any undue 
assistance. 

Self-reliance can best be encouraged if the work 
is adapted to the capabilities of the pupil ; that 
is, it must be neither too easy nor too difficult. 
If it is too easy, no real development is insured; 
if too difficult, dependence upon others must 
result. 

The teacher should conduct, control, and super- 
intend the work, but must guard against putting 
his hand to it. Nothing is gained by getting the 
child to produce a faultless model if this is not 
the result of his own unaided exertion. 

The child must use his judgment at every 
step, must recognize tliat he, and not the teacher, 



28 THEORY OF THE 8L0TD SYSTEM 

is responsible for the work. This is the only 
way in which independence can be fostered. 

If necessary, the teacher should illustrate on a 
different piece of wood. The rule, " Never touch 
the child's model," has no exception. 

In order to sustain the interest in the work, 
the child should never be compelled to make 
the same model more than twice in succession. 

ORDER AND EXACTNESS. 

The habits of order and exactness, which appear 
to be contrary to the natural instincts of many 
children, require much training. Order refers to 
an absolute idea; exactness is more relative. It 
is quite possible to make very exact models, and 
yet remain ver}' disorderly in the manner of 
work. These habits are, in a sense, the founda- 
tion of an aesthetic education. 

Disorderly habits and inexactness are always 
antagonistic to a true conception of beauty. 
Much has been said about giving the young an 
«3sthetic education ; 1:)ut it seems that the real 
foundation for this instruction has been neg- 
lected, inasmuch as stress has been laid upon 
the decoration of objects before the objects were 
correctly made. As a result, we find that many 
children think certain objects beautiful, which 



ATTENTION 39 

arc ill reality only higlily oriianieaitod. Tlio 
child must be taught from the very beginning 
to understand form as well as decoration. 

No matter how useful a dirty or repulsive work 
may be, it is not suitable to be taught in the 
schools. The models must always be of such a 
nature and material that they will admit of 
being copied with order, exactness, neatness, and 
cleanliness. 

ATTENTION. 

A teacher's work is useless if the child is in- 
attentive. Many discussions have centered upon 
the time to be devoted to certain subjects, but 
the question as to how a subject can be taught so 
as to attract and fix the attention is worthy of 
greater consideration ; for more matter can often 
be taught in half an hour, if it is rightly pre- 
sented, than in an hour, if it fails to attract the 
attention of the pupils. It has been said, with 
some truth, that if we work six hours a day, 
we do six hours' work ; whereas if we work 
eight hours, we do but four hours' work. 

In order to attract the attention, the chief 
thing necessary is to bring about a true and not 
a specious interest. The former consists in a 
desire to understand the subject for its own 



30 THEORY OF THE SLOYD SYSTEM 

sake ; the latter, for tlie sake of marks or rewards. 
In teaching theoretical subjects, it is at times 
very difficult to know whether the attention of 
a child is fixed or not. He may appear atten- 
tive, and yet his mind may be far away. 

In the manual work, the pupil's attention is 
attracted in three different directions — on what 
the teacher says, for the pupil soon finds that 
he cannot do his work without attending very 
closely to instructions ; upon himself, for other- 
wise the child comes to grief with his tools ; and 
upon the work engaged on, or he spoils it. 

At Naas, experience has shown that groAvn 
people destroy more work and hurt themselves 
more frequently than children. This is due to 
the fact that they have more to think about, 
and cannot concentrate their thoughts so fully 
upon any one particular object. 

Here it is that the great value of all educa- 
tional manual work shows itself — in cultivating 
the habit of attention. In order to create a habit 
of attention, the work must require mechanical 
as well as mental effort. 

INDUSTRY AND PERSEVERANCE. 

In the theoretical suljjects tlie connection be- 
tween industry and success is not ap|)arent. It 



PHYSICAL POWER 31 

is often difficult to impress upon the child's 
mind the fact of his inability to execute any 
real work without industry and perseverance. If 
book studies alone are relied upon to bring this 
truth home, the task of the teacher becomes all 
the more ungrateful, because many children find 
it impossible to grasp theoretical studies. They 
do their best, and yet they fail. 

The marking system is by no means a standard 
which will impress the child with an idea of the 
close relation existing between industry and suc- 
cess. Questions may be given which the child 
can answer correctly, though he himself feels 
that he has not comprehended the lesson. In 
manual work, however, industry can never fail 
to secure success. 

The school life and the after school life have 
heretofore differed much in the demands they 
have made upon us. Society requires that men 
put their ideas into execution. Has the school 
heretofore desired the same ? It may be said that 
a combination of manual and theoretical work 
reconciles the demands of the school with those 
of the world. 

PHYSICAL POWER. 

The ancients, and especially the Greeks, with 
their love of beauty and harnjony, devoted much 



33 THEORY OF THE SLOYD SYSTEM 

time to the symmetrical development of the hu- 
man body. No nation since their time has attained 
so high a standard of physical strength combined 
with physical beauty. 

In the middle ages we find two extremes — 
the monks, who mortified and suppressed every 
power of the body ; and the knights, who per- 
formed prodigies of strength and agility, while 
their minds were often as enij^ty as were their 
helmets. 

In comparatively modern times, the education 
of the masses was confined chiefly to the mind, 
as no organized provision existed for the train- 
ing of the body. 

To-day this question is regarded from a scien- 
tific standpoint. It is recognized that the school 
work must include nothing Avliich interferes with 
healthy bodily development. 

In order to strengthen the body, the work must 
demand much movement, thereby counteracting 
the bad effects of sitting still in the class-room. 
The principles which underlie any rational sys- 
tem of gymnastics should guide us in this work. 

Every exercise should have its appropriate posi- 
tion, which should be clearly explained. It may 
be argued that this is unnecessary, as each form 
of work instinctively suggests the most natural 



PHYSICAL POWER 33 

attitude ; bat the fallacy of such an argument is 
shown l^y the great mortality among men en- 
gaged in certain handicrafts, which is due to 
the cramped and unhealthy positions assumed 
in their occupations. Consumption, swelling of 
the veins and arteries, heart failure, and many 
other diseases are brought on by crowding the 
chest and by working with bent head. 

Dr. B. W. Richardson, in his popular work 
on " Health and Occupation," has given much 
valuable information on this subject. It is quite 
natural for workmen to assume that position 
wliich will enable them to finish their tasks in 
the shortest period of time. 

Knowing the evil effects of such habits, the 
teacher should be careful that the child does not 
assume a cramped position. 

Another point to which attention should be 
directed is the equal exercise of both sides of 
the body. It still remains to be proven that 
the left side is naturally weaker than the right. 
There are many exercises which involve the use 
of both the right and the left sides, such as 
rowing, swimming, boxing, weaving, plowing, 
kneading, digging, driving, etc., and if the left 
appears the Aveaker, it is probably due to years 
of unsymmetrical training. 



34 THEORY OF THE SLOYD SYSTEM 

Special consideration should be given to the 
positions taken by the chest, head, and feet. 

THE CHEST, HEAD, AND FEET. 

It is of the greatest importance that the chest 
be permitted to expand freely. All prolonged 
work should be executed with the chest out and 
the shoulders thrown back. Contracted chests 
})roduce shortness of breath and palpitation of 
tlie heart. 

The head should be held as erect as possible. 
I)y keeping the head in a bent position, the pas- 
sage of the blood through the veins of the neck 
and throat is impeded (the vein tube being 
stretched vertically), and at the same time the 
muscles at the back of the neck, which hold up 
the head, become strained. When we are erect, 
much of the weight of the head is supported 
by the spine. 

Again, in this bent position we look at objects 
from a wrong angle, and thus strain and injure 
the eyes. The work should be held at a dis- 
tance of about thirty centimeters (one foot) from 
the eye. 

In order that a worker may assume a firm and 
stable position, the direction of the resistance 
must at all times be taken into consideration. If 



POSITION IN SAWING AND PLANING 35 

the resistance comes from the front, onQfoot must 
be placed before the other, for the resistance 
offered must be as great a distance as possible 
from the center of gravity. 

POSITION IN SAWING AND PLANING. 

In sawing, it is thought best by some that the 
feet be placed at an angle of 90° ; by others, at 
60°. We consider 90° the better position. The 
shoulder and arm must be in line Avith the direc- 
tion which the saw is to take. In order that 
the head may be held high and the chest well 
expanded, the benches should be so made that 
they can be raised or lowered as the work may 
require. 

When sawing with the right arm, the left foot 
should be put straight out and parallel with the 
bench. When sawing with the left arm, the 
right foot should be put forward. The arm 
should move in the direction of the resistance. 
The saw should move in a line parallel with the 
bench. The body should move slowly back- 
Avard and forward, and its swing should be 
regulated by the amount of resistance to be 
overcome. 

In planing, the knee should be parallel to the 
bench, and one foot should be at right angles to 



3G THKORT OF THE SLOTD SYSTEM 

the other. The pressure on the plane, so that the 
phme-iron will catch the wood, should come from 
the weight of the body. Very little force should 
be put upon the plane with the arms. 

In drilling, the weight of the body should be 
used to overcome the resistance, since the pressure 
must be vertically downward. 

TO TRAIN THE EYE TO THE SENSE OF FORM. 

A numljur of models have been included in 
the Sloyd which might justly be termed "sense 
of form " models. Such models are princi- 
pally those which are bounded by curved and 
regular surfaces in sucli a way that their general 
effect is pleasing to the eye. 

As drawing trains the eye to a sense of outline, 
and modeling to a sense of solid form, so the 
manual wood-work should combine the two aims. 
In drawing we cannot exercise the sense of form 
to the greatest possible extent, as we have but a 
plane surface on which to represent that which we 
see. An important requisite is that all the models 
be artistic in form. 

GENERAL DEXTERITY OF HAND. 

A general dexterity of liand can only result 
from the education of many powers of the 



GENERAL DEXTERETY OP HAND 37 

hands. It is not special dexterity, such as we 
see in mechanics or factory employes, though it 
always facilitates the acquirement of special dex- 
terity. Sir Charles Bell in his treatise " On the 
Hand," gives us an excellent idea of its infinite 
uses. 

The following are a few interesting examples 
of the great extent to which hand dexterity may 
be developed : 

1. Two hundred and twcnty-onc words were written on a 
grain of wheat. 

2. A PoHsh monk wrote the whole of the lUad on a pieee 
of paper that could be put into a nut-shell. 

3. A Swede, Nauringaros, gave Pope Paul the Fifth twelve 
I)lates of ivory which were so small that they fitted inside of 
a pepper-corn. 

4. A gold chain of fifty links, which could only be seen 
when placed on white paper, was presented to Queen Eliza- 
beth. 

These, then, are the aims of the Sloyd, as a 
means of formal education, while the material 
element may be considered to have been provided 
for in the power imparted of manipulating tools 
and of producing models. The real worth of the 
instruction is naturally something more than the 
making of any series of models. From a mone- 
tary point of view, much unnecessary time and 



38 TnEOllY OF THE f^LOYD SYSTEM 

labor are expended upon the models, but it is not 
correct to judge an educational system solely from 
a monetary point of view. 

There are many ways in which Sloyd can be 
taught. It may be done with a view to economy, 
to utility, or as a ready-made plan of corporal 
work ; but the true way to bring about a lasting 
boneht is to regard it altogether as a means of 
education, and to attend to the teaching of its 
most minute details with this thought ever upper- 
most in the mind. 



CHAPTER II. 
SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE SLOYD. 



MANY FORMS OF MANUAL WORK. 

THE simultaneous employment of many forms 
of manual training in the public schools 
is fen- several reasons detrimental to progress. 
A sufficient numl)er of subjects is already being 
taught, and every branch of manual training is 
a distinct subject in itself. If the same advan- 
tages can be derived from one form of this work 
as from several forms, it is obviously better, on 
grounds of economy of time, labor, and expense, 
to confine the teaching to one. 

When many kinds of manual training are 
undertaken at once, proficiency cannot be 
attained in any of them in the limited time 
devoted to each, the interest of the children is 
diverted, and in the end the true value is lost. 
If, however, we restrict the teaching to one par- 
ticular kind of manual work, it is necessary that 
great caution be observed in choosing the best. 

39 



40 SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE 8L0YD 

The various handicrafts have beea subjected 
to the same tests, with the results shown in the 
table on p. 41. The following ten points have 
been considered : 

1. Is the work in accordance ^vith the average child's 
capabihtics ? 

2. Docs it excite and sustain interest ? That is, after the 
novelty lias worn off, docs the interest flag or increase with 
each lesson ? 

3. Are the models of such a nature that they can be used ? 
Are they as serviceable as an artisan's work, even though 
they are not as correctly finished ? 

4. Does the work tend to cultivate a respect for rough 
bodily labor ? 

5. Does it train to habits of order and exactness ? 

6. Is it of a character tliat admits of habits of cleanliness 
and neatness ? 

7. Does it cultivate the sense of form ? 

8. Is it beneficial from the hygienic point of view ? Does 
it counteract the evil effects of sitting still ? 

9. Does it allow of methodical arrangement ? Can tlie 
exercises be so arranged as to enable the pupil to proceed 
from the easy to the difficult, from the simple to the complex, 
so that at the beginning the work does not discourage him 
by its difficulty? 

10. Does it teacli general dexterity of hand ? 

It will be seen from the tal)le that the car- 
pentry Slovd answers all of these (piestions in the 
affirmative. 



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42 SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE SLOTD 

A marked diftereiice exists between carpentr}^ 
Sloyd (manual wood- work) and trade carpentry, 
as regards the character of the objects made. 

In the former the ol)jects are generally smaller ; 
and as to the tools used, the carpenter has spe- 
cial planes, while in the Sloyd the knife is the 
essential tool, in place of which the carpenter 
uses the chisel. 

The ax, bench-knife, and spoon-iron (which, 
though not carpenters' tools, are used by build- 
ers, wheelwrights, and coopers) are also used 
in the Sloyd. 

Finally, there is a difference in the manner 
in wdiicli the work is done. In the trade car- 
pentry there is a division of labor. In the Sloyd 
the complete object is made by one person. 

With the Sloyd, wood-carving and wood-turn- 
ing may be combined. The teacher may include 
both in the manual instruction, provided they 
do not prove too difficult. 

When wood-carving is included in the course 
of instruction, great care must be taken that the 
objects to l)e carved are themselves correctly 
finished, as ornament should never conceal 
imperfect work. 

The following are the principles which have 
served as guides in the choice of the models. 



MAJ^r FORMS OF MANUAL WORK 43 

1. All articles of luxury have been excluded. 

2. The ol)jects have a practical value ; that is, they can be 
used. 

3. The objects can be finished by the pupils themselves 
without any help. 

4. The objects are such that they can be made entirely of 
wood. This docs not mean that the requisite fixings, such as 
screws, hangers, hinges, etc., may not be employed, but that 
the child should not be required to make these things. 

5. The work is not to be polished. This refers to the use 
of clear-varnishes, French polish, etc. ; sand-paper may be 
used. The object is to encourage the children to work well, 
and not to think too much of the surface appearance. 

6. As little material as possible is to be used. The lesson 
to ]:)e enforced is that the value of the model depends not 
upon the material used, Ijut upon the amount of real work 
expended upon it. 

7. The pui)iLs are to learn to work both in hard and soft 
wood. It is not wise to have them work too much in the 
hardest kinds of wood, as it is a great strain upon their physi- 
cal strengtli, and consecjuently would soon prove beyond their 
]iowers. 

'S. Turning and carving are to ho used as little as possible, 
altliough both may be included. Experience has shown that 
tJiey are not as valuable as the carpentry Sloyd. Tiie time 
for manual work in the public school is of necessity limited, 
and to teach turning and carving for educational pur- 
poses would require as much time as is necessary for the 
Sloyd. Carving in all cases ought to be left for the end of 
the course. 

9. The models must develop the pupils' sense of form and 
beauty. In order to attain this object the series should in- 



44 SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE SLOYD 

elude a number of examples of form, such as spoons, ladles, 
and other curved objects. 

10. The whole series must be arranged so as to teach the 
pupils the use of all the necessar}' tools, and to know and 
perform the most important manipulations connected with 
wood-work. Each model ought to complete the preceding 
ones, and to teach the use of some new tool or some new 
kind of wood. The models constitute a series only when 
there is a logical connection between all of them, each one 
being the supplement as well as the comi)lement of its prede- 
cessor. 

ARRANGEMENT OF THE MODELS. 

In the arrangement of the models the following 
points have been kept in view : 

1. The series must progress without break from the easy to 
the difficult, from the simple to the complex. 

2. There must be a refreshing variety both in the exercises 
and in the models. 

3. The first models of the series should ho of sucli a nature 
that they can l^e quickly executed. The tasks nn;st he such 
that results will speedily follow, so that the children Ijy de- 
grees will gain sufficient confidence to undertake work requir- 
ing more extended time. 

4. In making the first models, only a small numl»er of tools 
sliould ])c used. 

5. The models must follow in a progressive order, so that 
by means of the preceding work the pupils will have attained 
the necessary aptitude to make the succeeding without any 
direct help from the teacher, and conseciuently it will not be 
more difficult to make one model than another. Tlie mak- 



TOOLS 45 

ing of the forty-nine previous models should render No. 50 
no more difficult than No. 1 was at the outset. 

6. The models must be of such a nature that the child is 
able to make an exact copy and not only an approximate one. 

7. The knife should be used as the fundamental tool. As 
nearly every child knows how to use the knife, wc have 
hereby a means of enabling the pupil to proceed from the 
known to the unknown. 

8. Rather hard wood should be used for the first models, as 
it is more difficult to work with the knife upon soft wood. 

TOOLS. 

It is desirable that each pupil have a set of 
tools, and be held responsible to keep them sharp 
and in good order. A special cupboard should 
be placed in the room, wherein most of the tools 
can l:)e put away after the school hours. Each 
tool should be numbered according to the bench 
to which it belongs. The art of sharpening 
tools must be taught. 

An opinion has prevailed that the tools used 
in the school should be of smaller size than 
those of the trades. This idea was carried out 
in Denmark as well as in France until within 
recent years. 

Experience shows, however, that children of 
the age of eleven to fourteen years are quite 
capable of using full-sized tools, and even manage 
to work better in consequence thereof, since the 



4C SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS OP THE SLOTB 

weight of the tool frequently assists in the doing 
of the work, as, for instance, in planing. 

Furthermore, if small tools are used, the par- 
ents and the children are not apt to regard the 
work as real. We have not as yet seen any 
advantage attending the adoption of small tools 
in the manual work. 

AGE OF PUPILS, LENGTH OF LESSONS, ETC. 

The Nails System is not suital)le for children 
under ten years of age. In Sweden the Sloyd is 
taught in the public school to boys of the age 
of eleven to fourteen years. The amount of 
time that is devoted to it is from four to six 
hours a week, or, on an average, about one hun- 
dred and twenty-five hours a j^ear. 

It has l)oen found l)est to extend the duration of 
each lesson to two hours, as one hour is too short 
to admit of arranging the benches, tools, and 
wood, as well as of doing the work, while three 
hours proves too great a tax upon the child's 
strength. 

Manual work is perliaps best taught in the 
middle of the morning, as it then serves to break 
the monotony of too many book studios, and 
3'et the children are n(^t too tired to enjoy and 
take an interest in the exercise. 



WHO SHALL BE THE TEACHER? 47 

WHO SHALL BE THE TEACHER? 

The teacher is the most important factor in 
education. As is the teacher, so are the pupils. 
The earnest spirit of the teacher working amid 
poor surroundings will bring about better results 
than fine premises, external advantages, and ex- 
pensive apparatus. The teacher must assume a 
great responsibility, and for this reason artisans 
who are not teachers should not be employed 
to give instruction in manual wood-work. 

The greatest recommendation for the artisan is 
his superior technical skill. The principle that 
must not be lost sight of is that this instruction 
is an educational means, and that only a teacher 
can properly impart his knowledge and impress 
it upon the child's mind. An artisan may be a 
good teacher, in which case he is equally quali- 
fied to instruct, and a teacher may in reality not 
be a teacher at all ; but, as a rule, the artisan 
lacks a professional training — an important req- 
uisite for the miking of a good teacher. 

It is necessary for the teacher to take a course 
in manual work, and to become sufficiently ac- 
quainted with the manipulation of tools to be 
able not only to understand the method, but 
also to make the models. 



48 SPECIAL AliRAJSGElfENTS OF THE SLOYD 



SHOULD THE INSTRUCTION BE INDIVIDUAL OR 
CLASS TEACHING? 

Manual training loses much of its educational 
value when it is not taught individually. Edu- 
cators have agreed that the nature of the cl^iild 
is the basis upon which educational s^^stems must 
be built. Since children have difierent capabili- 
ties, and since there are as many individualities 
as there are children, it is evident that the 
same instruction will not suit all. 

To be sure, book studies are taught by class 
teaching, but this is only a sad necessity. Teach- 
ers generally are of the opinion that these sub- 
jects could be better taught individually. From 
an economical point of view, the only advantage 
in class teaching is that it permits the teacher 
to take more pupils under his care at one time 
than individual teaching does. 

In the Sloyd the teacher may give instruction 
to a class of any number of pupils in the method 
of making the models, l)ut he can neither super- 
vise nor control the work of more than sixteen 
to eighteen children at one time. 

In manual training, several methods of class 
teaching have been tried ; for instance, in France 
and in some Danish schools the scholars have 



INDIVIDUAL AND CLASS TEACHING F 49 

kept time while at work, going through the 
exercises at the command of the teaclier. The 
result of this was that the pupils did not keep 
together in the amount of work accomplished, 
as one child with several movements of the 
same tool did as much work as it took another 
child many movements to accomplish. ' 

Supplementary work was also attempted. This 
l)roved unsuccessful, because the boys who re- 
ceived the supplementary work and a repetition 
of the exercises were very frequently just those 
who needed it least ; and thus, having been kept 
back, they were prevented from learning certain 
necessary manipulations, and left school without 
having completed the entire work. It was also 
found that the boy who did supplementary work 
required as much supervision as though he pro- 
ceeded with the ordinary series. 

The most common method in the class-teach- 
ing system of manual work is to allow those 
pupils who have finished the model to wait for 
tlie rest to catch up, without doing anything at 
all. The excellence of this method requires no 
comment. 

Of course there are other opinions on this sub- 
ject. One of our American authorities believes 
that class instruction is preferable, and states 



50 SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE 8L0YD 

that individual instruction drives pupils into 
enforced idleness while waiting for the teacher. 

In Sweden, where individual instruction has 
l)een practically applied for many years, this has 
only been found to be the case at the very 
outset. Each pupil soon became sufficiently in- 
formed to go on with the work quite inde- 
pendently of the teacher, since the models are 
arranged according to the child's ca})abilities. 
Later on, when the work became more intri- 
cate with a second model in hand, the boys 
have rarely, if ever, been found idle. 

The London " Journal of Education," in dis- 
cussing this question, says: *' If the class be 
taught as a unit, what of the enforced idleness 
of those wlio work too fast, or of the enforced 
scampering of those who work too slow ? " . 

Our American author in a former work, speak- 
ing of the Swedish Sloyd system, mentions the 
following three objections to this system : 

1. The manual training is limited to wood-work. 

2. The pupils are taught and shown a1)out their work 
separately ; class instruction is not given, and the several 
jHipils in the laboratory are doing very different things. 

3. The things wrought are household furniture or im])le- 
ments and utensils to be carrietl home and used tliere. There 
appears to he no aim beyond making thrifty householders. 



INDIVIDUAL AND CLASS TEACHING. 51 

Regarding the first objection, the advocates of 
the Sloyd movement regret that the author has 
quoted this information without due authority, 
for in the pubHc schools of Stockholm, Gothen- 
burg, and in almost all of the towns of Sweden, 
Sloyd metal work and Sloyd cardboard work 
have been taught for many years. 

The second objection — namely, to individual in- 
struction — is not treated at all in this earlier book, 
and in the later one is confined entirely to the 
"enforced idleness while waiting for the teacher" 
theory. Tlie author likewise promises to show 
that " the evils resulting from class instruction " 
are not real, but only apparent evils. This still 
remains to be shown. 

In regard to the third objection, in which it is 
claimed that the objects should be of less impor- 
tance than the method and aim of the work, 
the question arises Avhether the making of 
" thrifty householders " should not be an aim 
in public education. 

The same author continues : " The attractive- 
ness of the Swedish word Sloyd is that (to us) it 
has no etymological meaning to bias us. It shall 
forever mean to us just what we see it means 
when we see the things that the Swedes call by 

that name." 
4 



53 SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE SLOTD 

In spite of this statement, it seems tliat the 
Sloyd has a special meaning for this author, 
which, though not an etymological one, neverthe- 
less biases his opinion most strongly, and which 
he takes special care to emphasize by calling the 
Sloyd models '' things," 

Again, on close examination, these " things " 
will be found to contain more exercises in wood- 
working than any series of wood models used in 
our American manual training schools, which 
are, practically speaking, high schools, and for 
which the Sloyd system is not intended. 

The slight put by so great and eminent a writer 
upon the Sloyd system is likewise imposed upon 
the various other European systems of educa- 
tional manual training, as they are all practically 
ignored. This seems very strange indeed, as the 
European systems existed prior to the establish- 
ment of any manual training school in America, 
and it Avould be vain to deny that many of our 
best ideas on tliis subject have been gathered from 
the tried experiences in Euro})ean institutions. 



CHAPTER III. 
THE HISTORY OF MANUAL TRAINING. 



DEVELOPMENT OF THE MANUAL TRAINING IDEA IN 
VARIOUS EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. 

(^1 Traudatiauj'/vni the SwedLsh of' Salamoii's "■ Sloydskola and Folk- 
skola,'''' Book V.) 

THE application of manual training to pub- 
lic education is not a new idea. The his- 
tory of pedagogy for centuries back confirms this 
statement. 

Luther and Zwiiigli, reformers of the Church 
and the school, have written widely on this 
subject. 

Amos CoiiDtienius, savant and teacher, who, 
driven from his native town by the religious 
persecutions of the thirty years' war, found a 
home in every place where science and scientists 
Avere honored, and who, without doubt, may be 
called the " father of pedagogy," has in his 
several works shown the true significance of 
manual training as a means of education. 

53 



54 THE niSTOBT OF MANUAL TRAINING 

Francke, who fouiulud the " religious direction " 
in pedagogy, gave instruction in wood-turning, 
[)asteboard worlv, and glass-cutting at his remark- 
able Halle schools. Their institution dates back 
to the end of the sixteenth century. 

John Loche, the sharp-sighted English })liilos- 
opher, says in his well-known essay, '' Some 
Thoughts Concerning Education," that chil- 
dren from an early age should be trained in 
corporal work ; and he recommends carpentry 
and gardening. 

Jean Jaciptes Housseau, the many-sided genius, 
whose '' Emile," or "On Education," is a peda- 
gogical gold-mine (and this metaphor holds 
good especially when we consider that the noble 
metal must always be freed of much dross), 
requires that his pupils be taught a trade, and 
after careful investigation arrives at the conclu- 
sion, that of all trades carpentry is best adapted 
for educational purposes. "■ He must work like 
a peasant, and think like a philosopher, in order 
not to become good for nothing or a savage ; 
and the great secret of education is to combine 
mental and physical work so that the one kind 
of exercise refreshes for the other." 

The philanthropists Basedow, Sahmann, and 
Gamine replanted Rousseau's ideas on German 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 55 

soil, and in their writings have laid great stress 
upon the manner in which they applied these 
principles. 

Pestalozzi, who introduced intuition in in- 
struction, and love in education, speaks of the 
importance of a methodical arrangement in the 
teaching of manual training. 

Herhart, the creator of the newer scientific 
pedagogics, sees in hand-labor an almost indis- 
pensable means of building up the child's char- 
acter, and especially the power of self-reliance. 

FTiedricli Froehel, founder of the " Kinder- 
garten," thinks that activity exists before knowl- 
edge, and is the cause of it. He places manual 
work in the center of the instruction system, 
and groups all the other studies around it. 

It is not only these great thinkers who have 
recognized the importance of manual instruction. 
Many suggestions, both theoretical and practical, 
have come from other sources, and more especially 
so during the last twenty years, since the question 
of manual training and its place among school 
subjects has become one of the day. 

The following are the names of some of the 
educators who have been much interested in this 
work, and whose ideas arc worthy of our careful 
consideration. 



56 THE mSTORY OF MANUAL TRAINING 

MaHin Planta (1727-1772), a Swiss clergyman 
of evangelical faith, who in many respects may 
be regarded as the predecessor of his great coun- 
tryman Pestalozzi, introduced at the Haldenstein 
school near Chur, which was afterward moved to 
the Castle of iMarschlin, a system of manual work 
for educational purposes. He busied his pupils 
with wood-turning, pasteboard work, glass-cutting, 
gardening, and similar occupations. Barometers, 
thermometers, and various physical and mathe- 
matical instruments were made. Phinta's activity 
was limited entirely to this institution. 

Ferdinand Kinderman (1740-1801), the Bohe- 
mian school reformer, at this time advanced 
the idea of introducing manual work in the 
public elementary schools. It is to him that 
is due the honor of Ijeing the first to bring this 
question into public discussion. In his work 
'' Von der Entstehung und Verbreitungs-art der 
Industrie Klassen in der Volkschulen des Konigs- 
reichs Bohmens " (" An Account of the Origin 
and Increase of the Industrial Classes in the 
Public Schools of the Kingdom of Bohemia"), 
Kinderman says : " After carefully examining the 
work of our ]U'imary schools, it became apparent 
to me that the children were least of all occu- 
pied with those studies which would l)e of most 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 57 

service to tliom after the school period. I became 
convinced that this was the cause of much lazi- 
ness and poverty, of unfruitful religious life, of 
neglect of God's decrees, and of great wickedness. 
I set myself the task of studying the nature of 
the child. The common opinion that much can 
be done with the young mind contributed largely 
to strengthen me in my determination to carry 
out my ideas. 

" Before long I became convinced that our 
primary schools, even if they are worthy of being 
followed as examples in some respects, certainly 
do not come up to the highest standards, and, 
besides, do not in any way fulfill the aim of pre- 
paring the pupils for their life-work. It is not 
enough to cram the heads full of information, and 
take no step to create a love for work. Work- 
ing classes and reading classes must be combined. 
This is the only way that industry can be made a 
national characteristic. I became all the more 
eager to bring about a reform, as my experience 
taught me that the most industrious people were 
always the most moral." 

Kinderman established a school in Kaplitz, a 
small town in Budweiser Kreitz, where he like- 
wise officiated as clergyman. In 1773 this 
school became a state normal college, and was 



58 THE HISTORY OF MANUAL TRAINING 

enlarged in accordance with Kinderman's ideas. 
His work was appreciated so much, that in 1781, 
according to his account, some two liundred 
manual training departments were organized in 
connection with the primary schools of Bohemia. 
Instruction was given to boys and girls in spin- 
ning and knitting, and in some classes manual 
wood-working was taught. 

Von Helfest, the author of the " Austrian Pri- 
mary School," says in this work : " We have 
little left of Kinderman's great labor, except the 
healthy effect that can still be traced as a direct 
result of his work. If Bohemia's industries rank 
highest in Austria, among the causes that have 
brought about this happy result the influence of 
the great schoolman, Ferdinand Kinderman, will 
not be forgotten. He had hardly any public sup- 
port, but by his great wisdom and untiring energy 
he urged a collaboration with men of all classes. 
He has made the primary school the foundation of 
the welfare of our state. If you will ask the ma- 
jority of those who during the early part of the 
century were successful farmers, thriving mer- 
chants, or wealth}' manufacturers, to what cause 
they would attribute the first source of their 
material prosperity, I am sure they will without 
exception answer : ' It was the school which gave 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 59 

US the love and desire for work, and showed us 
the blessing of industry, order, and economy.'" 

In evangelical Germany, the first manual train- 
ing school was established in Gottingen in 1784, 
by L. G. Wageman, a clergyman, who was deeply 
attached to the cause of increasing the general 
usefulness of mankind. Following the example 
of the work of this institution, many others of a 
similar nature were founded at the end of the last 
and the beginning of the present century. 

Heppe, in his " Geschichte des Deutschen Volk- 
schulwesens " ('* History of the Condition of the 
German Public Schools"), talks much about their 
organization and growth. He states that such 
schools were established in Lippe-Detmold, 1788; 
Wurzburg, 1789; Hanover, 1790; Braunschweig, 
1792; Wurtemburg, 1795; Prussia, 1798; Gotha, 
1798; Baden, 1803; Bavaria, 1804; Hesse, 1808. 
These '' Industrieschulen " (Industrial Schools) 
were intended exclusively for the poorer classes, 
and their aim was to instil the love for work as 
a human duty. 

Arnold Wageman, a brother of the clergyman 
of Gottingen, published in 1791 a book entitled 
" tjber die Bildung des Volks zur Industrie " 
(" On the Education of the Mnsses for Industrial 
Pursuits "), wherein the word "Industrie" is de- 



60 THE HISTORY OF MANUAL TRAINING 

lined as ''an uniployinont of time and energy to 
the best ends, conforming to the laws of econ- 
omy." He speaks of the aim of the industrial 
schools, as follows : 

" We cannot expect any good influence from 
the home training, unless in the home can be 
found persons who perfectly understand the rela- 
tion of education to ' Industrie.' Therefore this 
work must at present be carried on in the 
schools. It is there that from an early age the 
child should be trained in such occupations as 
will exercise and develop those forces which can 
and will later on l)e usefully applied. Up to the 
present time we have not done so. We have 
occupied the child's mind with subjects which are 
of no real importance to him, and upon whicli 
his attention has remained only as long as there 
were external means at work, such as either his 
love for the teacher or his fear of punish- 
ment. How can such compulsory activity be 
useful to the mind ? 

" I am l)old enough to say that it is wrong to 
begin school work with direct instruction in 
subjects that are purely mental, and amount to 
nothing more than memory lessons, since the 
cliild has had no experience, and it is only ex- 
perience that can give interest to the study of 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 61 

abstract subjucts. It woultl certainly be better to 
follow the hints offered by Nature, who allows 
the growth of the body in early childhood to 
supersede that of the mind. We should, there- 
fore, put a greater demand upon the more 
rapidly growing corporal forces than upon tlie 
brain with its slower development. 

" The youthful strength has been stunted rather 
than invigorated. What child can understand 
the necessity of all this uncomfortable sitting 
still and all these memory lessons? The child 
must have an aim in his work, an aim very near 
to his heart, if we wish him to achieve the 
desired result. How often does it happen that 
the real pleasure tlie child exj^eriences when 
leaving the school exists in aught else than the 
consciousness of being finally able to give vent to 
forces that have been held in check? 

" We need only, unobserved by the children, 
watch them at their occupations after school 
hours. We will soon see how we ought to busy 
them in the class-room, in order to make their 
school life both agreeable and useful. 

'' The boys will be found at the brooks, build- 
ing dams and water-wheels, making grottos, con- 
structing cottages, or possibly carrying wood and 
other material on little wagons. Some choose 



63 THE msrORY OF MANUAL rRAINING 

moru difficult, others more easy tasks, dei)ending 
upon their natural boldness. 

"■ The girls play with dolls, though these may 
be made of nothing but leaves and moss, and 
they often imitate housekeeping in their games. 

" All want activity, and thus they compensate 
themselves for the sitting still in the school- 
room. Can these facts not teach us how we 
ought to occupy our little ones? Rapidly they 
go from one pastime to another ; perseverance 
is not their forte, and still we are to make 
steady workmen out of them. Do we employ 
the right means, when we keep them for six 
hours a day at their desks ? " 

Wageman gives us a concise rule as a guide 
in teaching manual work. He says: " As a most 
elementary principle, we must follow Nature's 
way, and choose at the beginning such work as 
sliall require both little mental and physical 
hibor, so that the results may Ijo quickly attained. 
The instruction must be thorougli, and tlie atten- 
tion must be closely riveted, and only at the 
outset should poor or faulty work l)e tolerated." 

Dr. I. G. I{:rimitz, a contemporary of Wageman, 
lias treated this subject more at length in his 
work "Die Landscliulen s<^ wohl wie Lelir als 
auch Arlu'its odor Industrie Schulcn IJetrachtet" 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 63 

(" The Country Schools Viewed as Instruction 
and Manual or Industrial Schools"). This work 
was published in 1794, and by a royal mandate 
was ordered to be bought by every parish in 
Prussia. 

He says: "The time devoted to book studies 
might be much decreased if theoretical and prac- 
tical work Avere combined ; and, since we have 
arrived at the conclusion that more will be 
learned in this way, one might say that the 
half has become greater than the whole. Book 
work alone is very unproductive of good re- 
sults, as is proven by the fact that our country 
boys, after spending six hours per day at school 
during a period of from six to eight years, are 
in most cases ignorant, rough, and illiterate." 

This book contains many practical sugges- 
tions concerning the arrangement of manual 
instruction, as well as accounts of the public 
schools in which manual training has been intro- 
duced. 

At this time a similar movement was going on 
in France. The great revolution against all the 
old customs had just begun. In the words of 
Mirabeau, " pour tout reconstruire ete force de tout 
demolir " (" in order to reconstruct everything, 
everything must first be destroyed"). The signs 



64 THE HISTORY OF MANUAL TRAINING 

of the early period gave promise of an entire 
cliange in the form of public instruction, and a 
well-arranged plan embodying the new ideas on 
manual work was adopted. 

In a comprehensive and interesting book en- 
titled ''L'instruction Public en France Pen- 
dant la Revolution," published in Paris in 1881, 
Hqjpeau says : ** All principles of education and 
all systems of instruction have been studied 
and developed from the point of view of a 
government which through the grace of God has 
been founded from the ruins of a kingdom, by 
the national will. Our education should have, 
as its starting point, a respect for the rights of 
man, and should be arranged to suit the needs 
and demands of a people who but a short time 
ago acquired their liberty." 

The National Assembly now exhibited a pecul- 
iar drama. At the same time that it crushed 
out all that seemed to stand as an obstacle in the 
way of the new order of things, executing thereby 
the most terrible and bloodthirsty acts, it inter- 
ested itself in the study of all matters pertaining 
to the education of the masses, Avitli a calmness 
and judgment most astonishing in its strong con- 
trast to the perpetration of its dreadful deeds. 

In 1793, the year that witnessed the falling of 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 65 

the heads of the king and queen before the 
guillotine, when terrorism raged at its highest, 
the convention worked with great eagerness to 
establish throughout the excited republic new 
schools embodying the new ideas. At no time 
before or since have these questions played so 
prominent a part in public debate, and caused so 
much general discussion, as during these event- 
ful times. 

Hippeau further says : '' To the time of the 
convention can be traced the origin of the idea 
of introducing manual work in the elementary 
schools." 

On the 13th of July, 1793, Hohe^jylerre laid 
before the National Assembly a plan of educa- 
tion which was to be followed throughout the 
republic. This plan had been drawn up by 
Michael le Peletier, a member of the Assembly, 
who was murdered in January of the same year. 
Robespierre Avas its warmest advocate. 

The following is an extract from this plan : 
" Public education, besides giving strength and 
health, must instil the duty of the habit of 
work, because this is to all both a necessity and 
an advantage. I do not refer to a thorough 
knowledge of any particular kind of work, but 
rather to that energy, that activity, that Indus- 



66 TUE HISTORY OF MANUAL TRAINING 

triousness, and that perseverance to the end, 
which characterize the life of every diligent 
individual. Educate such men, and the republic 
will see its fruits of agriculture and of industry 
redoubled. Instil in the child this need, this 
habit of work, and his future existence is se- 
cured, as he will then be entirely dependent 
upon himself. I consider this part of education 
as the most important, and therefore my plan of 
general instruction contains manual labor as its 
vital feature. Of all the sources which are apt 
to stimulate the average child, none will pro- 
duce a greater desire for activity than physical 
work. 

" By this bill which I lay before you, I hope to 
interest fathers, teachers, and pupils. Fathers, 
because their taxes will be decreased ; teachers, 
because they may hope for honor and recom- 
pense in this new field ; and children, because the 
accomplishment of some real, material work will 
always be to them a source of great delight. 
I would desire that various kinds of handicraft 
work might be introduced." 

In spite of Robespierre's efforts, this question 
remained for almost a century at a stand-still, and 
it was not until the era of the third republic 
that the ideas of the first were carried into execu- 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 07 

tion. Let us return for a moment to the progress 
in Germany. 

A. H. Niemeyer (1754-1828), rector of tlie 
University of Halle, and director of the institu- 
tions founded by Francke, in his well-known 
work, " Die Grundsatze der Erziehung und des 
Unterrichtes " (" The Principles of Education and 
Instruction "), says : " The more incessantly Ave 
employ the children, the more we can shield 
them from evil habits, and create in them a 
desire for the good. Children for whom other- 
wise there seemed no hope, needed but very 
little correction as soon as a means for keeping 
them actively employed was found. To dis- 
cover an occupation suital)le to each stage of 
development, is without doubt the important 
work of every educational system. We should 
therefore give the children an opportunity to be- 
come mentally and physically active, and should 
not tax them beyond their natural forces. Man- 
ual work strengthens the body, and frees the home 
life from dullness and emiuL 

" Of the many kinds of physical labor, the 
carpentry may be considered as the most suitable 
handicraft for the young, on account of the many 
works that can be accomplished in it, and also on 
account of the great variety of tools employed. 



68 Tllb: HI8T0BY OF MANUAL TRAINING 

Carpentry is not beyond the natural powers of tlie 
child. Turnery exercises the senses and creates 
an artistic faculty. It is Avell to teach the child 
how to handle such tools as are used in the home, 
as the saw, the haninier, the ax, the auger, etc. 
Neglecting this, we are really making our children 
helpless, since they will be unable to use the com- 
- mon tools without hurting themselves." 

In 17U7 a pamphlet appeared entitled, " Uber 
die I]eniitzung des bei Kindern so thiitigen 
Triebes, beschaftigt zu sein " (" How to Make Use 
of the Child's Active Impulse to be Occupied"). 
The author, J. H. G. Ileusiiiger (17G6-1837), doc- 
tor of philosophy and i)edagogy at the University 
of Jena, is, generally speaking, to be regarded as 
the predecessor of Froebel, as he begins with very 
nearly the same princijdes, and arrives at similar 
conclusions. 

Rissmann says : " Heusinger's works were very 
carefully studied by Froebel. His books owned 
by Froebel were all marked with many mar- 
ginal notes. It is needless to say that this does 
not in any way detract from the practical value 
of Froebel's pedagogy." Much stress is laid 
u})on the development of the sense of beauty, for 
which reason Heusinger believes that modeling 
should form a part of the school work. 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 69 

The following is a short extract from his re- 
markal)le writings : " From the sixth year on, the 
children are taught from books. Is it at all sur- 
prising that they think it is from books alone that 
knowledge is to be obtained? A bright child has 
therefore no other desire than to get books and 
to study out of them. The acquisition of knowl- 
edge by his own observation, by his own efforts, 
is something that our present education does not 
teach him. This is left for after school hours, 
because it is still Itelieved that the teaching of 
facts should be the main feature of all educational 
systems." 

Heusinger shows us in his book " Die Familie 
Wertheim " ("The Family Wertheim "), how his 
principles are best to be applied. He shows that 
the instruction must be founded upon experi- 
ences gathered by those who are closely watch- 
ing the school work. He thinks that manual 
work sliould be a principal means of education, 
as it satisfies the child's natural desire for creat- 
ing and imitating. 

Regarding the choice of occupation, he l)elieves 
— first, that tlie occupation should correspond 
with the physical forces ; secondly, that the work 
should not impair the child's health ; thirdly, 
that it sliould be executed both while sitting and 



70 THE UISTORY OF MANUAL TRAINING 

standing, thus giving opportunity to frequently 
change the position of the body ; fourtlily, that 
the work should not only be the means of mak- 
ing the future apprenticeship to the trades easier, 
l)ut should be of general use in any vocation ; 
liftlily, that materials should be chosen from 
which many different objects can be made ; 
sixthly, that the main stress should be laid upon 
the connection between the practical work and 
the acquisition of true knowledge ; and, finally, 
that the work should develop the sense of form 
and beauty. To accomplish all this, Heusinger 
pro})oses pasteboard, bone, wax, metal, and wood 
work. 

Emanuel von FelUnherfi (1771-1844), founder of 
Hofwyl, as he liked to call himself, partly col- 
laborating with Pestalozzi, strove to develop a 
national system of education . Hofwyl was an 
estate situated several miles north of Bern, Switz- 
erland. Fellenberg bought this in 1799, and 
turned it into a colony which to-day might serve 
as a model for agricultural and industrial work. 
Among all the institutions founded there, the 
well-known '' Poor School " was his favorite. The 
motto of the school was '' I'ray and Work," and 
he told his pupils again and again tliat truly 
industrious men not only produce more than 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 71 

dull, mechaniccil workers, l)ut are really able to 
do the state a greater and higher service. 

In this school the pupils were principally oc- 
cupied in the fields, in the woods, in housework, 
and in the shops. As a recreation, instruction 
was given in theoretical studies. One who wit- 
nessed what was done here says : '' The instruc- 
tion given was indeed refreshing. The boys would 
come from an arduous task, and would return to 
it with renewed energy and readiness. I can only 
explain this on the ground that they were spurred 
on by the existence of an inner mental joy." 

Here are Fellenberg's words : " Philanthropists, 
come and rejoice with me in the blessed expe- 
rience of the fact that the necessity of earning 
one's own bread can be productive of better re- 
sults than the dwarfing of mental and corporal 
forces, and that physical exertion under correct 
guidance may be of great and lasting benefit to 
l)0th mind and body." In his school for boys 
of the higher classes, in which, during a period 
of some ten years, tlic sons of the most renowned 
families of Europe, and even princes of the 
reigning houses, were pupils, manual instruction 
was given in wood and pasteboard work. 

Johann Jacoh Wehdi (1700-1855) was for many 
years the director of the poor school at Hofwyl. 



73 THE HI8T0RT OF MANUAL TRAINING 

Though a plain and simple man, who never had 
the advantage of a higher education, he never- 
theless possessed just those qualities which emi- 
nentty fitted him to be a teacher of the poor. 
He followed Pestalozzi's method of instruction, 
placing all matters Ijefore the children in the 
most intelligible and practical light. 

The education for work being the chief aim 
of the school, little time was devoted to the 
usual studies. Wehrli gave much chance in- 
struction. When at work, lie told many instruc- 
tive tales, and sometimes lie would even require 
tlie children to solve problems in arithmetic; and 
at the same time, in the most natural way, he 
would tell them facts connected with the prac- 
tical work which they had in hand. 

Through his efforts, the scholars learned to 
work in a thoughtful manner. He loved his 
pupils as a father, and nursed them as a mother. 
In later years, many schools with his method 
were founded throughout Germany, and such 
have been called '' Wehrli schools." 

Bernliard Heinrwli Bhtsche was to Salzmann 
wlint Weln-li was to Fellenberg; namely, a higldy 
esteemed contemporary. Blasche superintended 
the so-called " mechanical work." A man of 
much experience as a teacher, he has ex})ressed 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 73 

the value of manual labor as an educational in- 
fluence in his numerous writings, the best known 
of which, " Die Werstiltte der Kinder," is an ex- 
tensive and interesting- work in four volumes. 
His views, like Rousseau's, are that manual 
training should \)g taught as a basis for intel- 
lectual improvement. 

J. G. Fichte (17G2-1814), in his well-known 
speeches to the German nation, points out the 
importance of incorporating manual training into 
the national educational system, and says that it is 
the only means for the fatherland's regeneration. 
" My cliicf request is that theoretical instruction 
and practical labor be combined, so that each 
school will appear self-supporting to its scholars, 
thereby creating a desire in each pupil to con- 
tribute his share of work in accordance with his 
capabilities. 

" Without touching upon the feasibility or tlie 
economical practicability of such a method of 
instruction — questions which rightfully belong to 
our proposition — my request arises as a direct re- 
sult of the aim of true education, partly because 
tlie majority of those Avho are instructed under 
the national educational system belong to the 
workingmen's classes, whose early training should 
without doubt be in the line of technical work, 



H THE HISTORY OF MANUAL TRAINING 

and more especially bocauye there will arise in 
the young a consciousness of being able to shift 
for themselves, and a reluctance to rely upon the 
munificence of others. 

" This is surely the solo condition of each man's 
self-respect. If we were to investigate the careers 
of those Avho have led a bad or demoralized life, 
we should always find that they would neither 
learn to work, nor to understand the true habit 
of economy. 

" Our idea is to teach the .young how to work, 
so that in the future they will not l)e tempted to 
commit crime in order to satisfy the mere needs 
of existence. We would in no case except those 
who intend to follow a learned career from this 
kind of work." 

Schindlei', a prominent Swiss statesman, in 1854 
gave to the public the following prize question : 
" How shall the instruction in our elementary 
schools be freed from its present abstract method, 
and be made luore conducive to true mental 
development?" This question was the cause of 
many competitive writings, nnu^ng which may be 
mentioned essays from the most })rominent peda- 
gogues of the day. 

The newspapers discussed the matter, and held 
it in its true light before the eyes of the public. 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAININO Vo 

The pedagogical value of manual education 
was at once suggested. 

Among the valuable answers, two deserve 
special mention ; viz., '' Die Arbeits-schulen der 
Land-gemeinden in ihren voll-berechtigten zu- 
sammenwirken mit der Lchrschulen " (" The 
Working Schools of the Parishes in their True 
Relation to the Elementary Schools ") by Dr. 
Conrad Michelson, and "Die Erziehung zur Ar- 
beit, eine Forderung des Lebens an die Schule " 
('' The Education to Work, a Demand which 
Life makes of the Scliool ") by Karl Friedricli. 
We give a few extracts from these works. 

Proceeding from Fichte's statement that the 
public education was the important problem of 
the period, Michelson tried to prove that the so- 
lution could be more easily reached b}^ connect- 
ing the elementary schools, which at that time 
were simply reading schools, with the so-called 
working schools. The author speaks of those 
founded in 1796, by Duke Peter of Oldenhurg, in 
Ilolstein. This warm-hearted nobleman, feeling 
that he had not done sufficient by simply grant- 
ing freedom to his serfs, and knowing " that he 
wlio is free must understand how to use his 
lil)erty, how to busv tlie mind, and employ tlie 
hands," established manual schools in which 



7G THE BISTORT OF MANUAL TRAINING 

spinning, sewing, and weaving were taught to 
girls, wood-work to boys, and gardening to both. 

Dr. Conrad Michehon, who had made a close 
study of these schools, says : " I spent much time 
talking to men and women who had been edu- 
cated there ; I found that though many had for- 
gotten the most of that wliich had been taught 
in the reading schools, the working school was 
still living in their grateful recollections, and 
they all, without exception, acknowledged the 
valuahle habits they had acquired there." 

In another chapter he says : " When it is nec- 
essary to fight against a dee[)ly rooted disease, the 
facts of the case must be taken as they are, and 
not as one would like them to be. I could tell 
you many curious facts about these families. 

"I recall one instance of a father who had been 
an lial)itual drunkard, and who worked only 
when urgent necessity drove him to it. His s<^n 
liad joined one of these working schools, and 
busied himself evenings by doing some little 
manual work. One evening the father l)ecame 
interested in the son's work, and it was not a 
long time after this that he was encouraged to 
take a luind in it. He has since become thrifty 
mid useful. I know of another case, where, 
through the influence of a daughter, the good 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 77 

taught in the school was reflected as a blessing 
in the house. 

" To you who believe only in figures, I can show 
by figures that a large part of the expenses which 
working schools will entail would in reality be 
saved out of the funds which are now expended 
on the poor-house." 

According to Michelson, all articles of luxury 
should be excluded from the manual work, for 
the same reason that all abstract subjects should 
be omitted IVom the book studies. His motto is, 
" Erziehen, nicht Verziehen " (" Guidance, not Mis- 
guidance "). It is not models we want, but the 
habit to work. Referring to the models, he says : 
" On this rock many a manual training school 
has been wrecked." The kind of work must be 
arranged in accordance with the sphere in which 
the pupils live, so that they may in a measure be- 
come prepared for their future occupations. The 
country boys should be instructed in Kliitern '•' 
(manual training in wood-work) and in plaiting. 

* The oxpression Kliitern^ taken from tlio PTolstoin dialect, 
corres])oii<ls to tlie Swedish Trasloijd (wood-sloyd). Ac- 
cordiiiji; to Miclielson, Kliiterv siunifies all kinds of wood- 
work, ))oth for home and ticUl industry, such work as does 
not apply to any particular trade. Duke Peter's statement, 
that the aim of tlie country working school should he to 
produce various objects in wood for the home, the stable, 
the barn, and the field, expressed the same idea. 



78 THE ETSrORY OF MANUAL TRAININO 

Karl Friedrich's '' Erziehiing zur Arbeit " 
C Education to Work "), written with much care 
and in a clear, persuasive tone, is a work of great 
merit which exerted a wide influence. It has 
attracted considerable attention, and is still used 
as a book of reference. Those who in the 
main s^niipathize with this author will find him 
at times dealing in exaggerations, and again 
wandering in idealistic dreamland 

In the first four chapters, to which is prefixed 
the " Konnen ist besser dcnn Wissen " (" To be Able 
is better than to Know "), Friedrich ex})lains what 
seem to him to l:)e the faults that underlie the 
elementary school system. He says : " Some of 
the subjects are not proportionately valuable to 
tlie amount of time devested to them ; what is 
learned is very soon forgotten." The following 
quotations furnish a good illustration of Karl 
Fried rich's opinions : 

" In 1882 a committee on instruction in Bel- 
gium exaiTiined 8,917 young soldiers. Of this 
number, 7,801 had attended either a pu1)lic or a 
private elementary school. The following results 
were obtained : Of 2,;>47 young men who could 
not write, 1,877 had taken a primary school 
education. Of 6,480 who could wi'ite, 1,476 could 
not add the figures 41)2, lO'i, 18; ;3,12() did not 



DEVELOPMEm OF MANUAL TRAINING 79 

know how many meters there are in one kilo- 
meter; 684 did not know in which country Lon- 
don is situated ; and 4,047 did not know whether 
Moses lived before or after Christ. 

'' Purely mental exertion impedes healthy 
bodily development. In a certain community 
in Saxony, out of 1,004 young men who were 
to be enrolled in the military service, 902 were 
found physically incapable, 176 partially inca- 
pable, and 199 beneath the required stature. In 
a certain part of Prussia, among 17,246 young 
men, who on account of having passed special 
examinations were only to serve for one year in 
the army, 80/^ were found physically incapable. 

" In the work of the public school, a great dis- 
proportion exists between the teaching force and 
the number of pupils, and therefore it becomes 
impossible for the most zealous teacher to occupy 
all the children under his care, and to keep 
proper discipline. He is sure to be overworked 
and physically enfeebled. 

" The continuous still sitting, and the teaching 
of subjects which neither attract nor hold the 
child's attention, are the reasons why no real 
desire for knowledge is engendered ; and when 
the children work with eagerness and apparent 
pleasure, it is generally due to other means than 



80 TUE UISTOBY OF MANUAL TRAINING 

an interest in the subject itself. The present 
instruction neither corresponds with what the 
true aim of the pubhc school should be, nor 
with the laws that directly relate to the nature 
of the child. 

" The cause of these sad truths may be found 
in the fact that the school has been changed 
from an institution which should be a means to 
an end, into one that has concentrated its entire 
aim within itself. Instead of at every stage 
adapting its instruction to the requirements of 
the after-school period, it dogmatically follows 
out its own ideas regarding the subjects to be 
taught, and the degree of perfection to which 
each study is to be carried. What is the result? 
We force our children to abide by a system 
which is opposed to their natural desires, since 
they prefer the golden fruits of life to grave and 
})Ouderous theories. 

" By making the instruction more practical 
tlian it has hitherto been, we can best effect a 
true i)reparation. So long as the school teaches 
only theoretical subjects, it will continue to be- 
come more and more proud of these, and will 
instil an air of superiority toward the home and 
the life outside of the school. A purely prac- 
tical element would l"urnisli reactionary means. 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 81 

This tendency to do practical and physical work 
is a demand of human nature, especially visible 
in the young, since they not only require a har- 
monious development, but also can have their 
desire for activity best satisfied in this way. 

" The advantage of a practical discipline can 
be explained by stating that the method must 
proceed from the simplest and most convenient 
to the more difficult and involved exercises of 
the powers ; thus being opposed to the tlieoretical 
method, which usually proceeds from conij)li- 
cated abstractions, which of necessity strain and 
confuse the pupils. 

'' Since practical work is consistent with the 
nature of the youth, there is no particular need 
of awakening an interest by artificial or com- 
pulsory means. Pedagogy itself will accomplisli 
through practical instruction that which it con- 
ceives as its first duty ; namely, it will secure 
by investigation a correct knowledge of the true 
characteristics of its pupils. 

"■ Individuality presupposes a distinct self- 
activity, and can never be the result of recep- 
tivity alone. Every teacher has known boys 
who were remarkable for their dullness while 
at school, and who, Avhen put in other sur- 
roundings, became active and useful, while some 



82 THE HISTORY OF MANUAL TRAINING 

of the so-called excellent pupils grew to be 
lazy and unprincipled men. 

" When we think of the sickness and deformity 
caused by the leaning positions assumed by both 
teacher and pupils, it requires no argument to 
convince us of the advantages to health and 
physical development to be gained from the 
l)ractical work. 

"The greatest advantage of manual work is 
its intkience on the cliaracter and moral nature, 
which renders it as niucli a feature of education 
as of instruction. Competition in this Avork 
takes a more natural and less dangerous turn, 
for the reason that an ambition which seeks to 
do a work more correctly is surely more nat- 
ural and less dangerous than one which aims 
at simi)ly heing considered to have done some- 
thing better. 

" The fact tliat the practical instruction has a 
direct bcjaring u})on the home and the family 
life is of a great pedagogical value, because less 
educated parents are al)le to take an interest in 
the i)rogress of tlieir children, as this work 
conies more within the capacity of their judg- 
ment." 

Having spoken :il»out the })revious attempts 
made, and liaving explained some of the reasons 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 83 

wliy such attempts proved unsuccessful, the 
author tries to show a possibiHty of the realiza- 
tion of his ideas. 

His book ends thus : " Whatever be the 
destiny of these contemplations, whetlier they 
are going to have some direct result or not, 
the author thinks that lie has paid a debt to 
his fatherland, and to tlie youth growing up 
to manhood, Ijy openly declaring what to 
him seems to be the real defect in the present 
educational system. He does not claim any 
originality for his proposition, but it has the 
advantage of being the expression of a thought, 
which perhaps for a long time has been in the 
minds of many fathers and many teachers." 

''Die Erziehung zur Arbeit" came out in 
1852. Thirty-one years later it appeared in 
another edition, completely revised by the 
author. Instead of the noni de plume Karl 
Frledrwh, we find on the title-page tlie name 
of Prof. Karl Biederinan, a prominent writer on 
political science. Professor Biederman took an 
active part in the political strife of 1848. In 
this second edition, the Swedish Sloyd is men- 
tioned in a most flattering w^ay. 

In the middle of this century, while through- 
out Germany a great deal of activity was mani- 



84 THE HISTORY OF MANUAL TRAINING 

fested in pedagogical circles — a period marked 
by numerous writings on tlie manual training 
question — Torsten Hudenschold (17U8-1859), the 
self-made schoolman as he has been called, 
worked with unremitting zeal to reform the 
Swedisli public school system. 

It is not so much because of what he said or 
wrote, but rather for what he did, and for the 
example he furnished to others, that many of 
those who liave worked in the cause of educa- 
tion will remember him with a feeling of love 
and esteem, as a man whose warm heart told 
liim what the 2:>eople needed, and whose gifts 
as a true educator enabled him to scatter the 
seeds for future harvests. 

To tlie advocates of the Swedish Sloyd in- 
struction system, it will be pleasant to recollect 
that Rudenschold did not overlook the impor- 
tance of educational manual training. 

In a little pamphlet which appeared in 185G 
entitled, " The Practical Arrangement of the 
►Swedisli Public School," he says : '' It is becom- 
ing more and more universally acknowledged, 
that in the elementary school the children are 
overburdened with continual reading lessons, 
which they have not had sufficient time to 
digest, and the result of which is a valueless 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 85 

memory knowledge. That the mind and the 
body are to be developed at the same time, is 
gradually coming to be more and more under- 
stood. Gymnastics is too much of a health 
remedy to awaken either a sufficient pleasure or 
interest for its own sake. 

" To devote too much time to corporal work 
cannot be advantageous, as we do not propose 
to make either mechanics or j)hysical workers 
of all our children ; yet no one can tell the 
future of his child. In real life, everything 
rests upon an uncertain and ever changing basis. 
In the mercantile world, ' all is not gold that 
glitters.' 

" The system of credits, when closely examined 
into, may be likened to a tremendous sphere 
resting upon a volcano. The pupils who are 
fond of speculation are walking upon it. The 
eruption suddenly comes. It then happens that 
the young men of the better classes are left 
without a means of self-support. 

''Children of the best families, no matter how 
high their social position may be, will receive 
much benefit from an early training in physical 
work, as we constantly hear the complaint that 
they are too weak, and seek only the pleasures 
of life and its expensive diversions. They will 



86 TEE HISTORY OF MANUAL TRAINING 

then learn for themselves that in corporal work 
there is more true satisfaction, and will prefer 
it as a refreshing pastime. 

"It is said of John Adams, President of the 
United States of America, that after spending 
his mornings in executive duties he would 
devote his leisure afternoons to farming and 
gardening." 

In studying the history of pedagogy, in order 
to learn the ideas expressed by the more promi- 
nent writers on the manual training question, 
two names which must not be overlooked are 
those of Tuiskon Ziller and Uno ('Vgnaeus. 

Tuiskon Ziller in 1864 published his scientific 
work entitled " Grundlegung zur Lehre von 
Erziehenden Unterricht " ('' The Principles for 
the Study of Educational Instruction "). Ziller 
was professor of pedagogy at the University of 
Leipzig, and was a follower of Herbart in the 
true sense of the word. He discusses manual 
training very thoroughly. 

'' Its object," he says, "■ is to make any life's 
calling easier, and it should not be put in 
the direct service of the state by the teaching 
either of special trades or of manual work in 
the home. If the work is to be arranged so 
that a profit will accrue I'rom the sale of the 



DEVELOPMENT OF 31 A JS UAL TRAINING 87 

objects made, the future of each child will be 
sacrificed. This question is not to be regarded 
from an economical standpoint. The selling of 
the work would imply a continual repetition 
of aljout the same exercise, which means a 
thoughtless, mechanical occupation. 

'^ The elements of various handicrafts may be 
taught, such as turnery, the use of the hanniier, 
saw, plane, bore, and file. Such models must be 
taken from the series in which the simplest exer- 
cises are to Ijc found, so as to avoid difficult and 
intricate combinations. Theoretical and practical 
work should as far as possible bear one another 
out. 

" On the one hand, natural science, mathemat- 
ics, grammar, histor}^, geography, drawing, and 
singing should offer problems to the work-shop ; 
and, on the other hand, the practical experiences 
gathered in the manual work should make Ijook 
studies the more easily learned." 

Ziller argues very strongly against the theory 
which had been previously advanced; namely, 
that " manual work should form the basis for 
all instruction whose aim is a general educa- 
tional one." 

l/no Cygna/ns has not come to occupy his 
prominent place among the educators of his 



88 THE HISTOBT OF MANUAL TRAINING 

time tlirougli his numerous scientific C()ntril)u- 
tions to pedagogical literature. His views have 
been expressed less in words than in deeds. They 
stand forth in sharp, distinct clearness in those 
special school laws which put life into the public 
school system of Finland, and in all the princi- 
ples according to which this system is now car- 
ried on. They have been subjected to the closest 
practical investigation, and all Finnish teachers 
know how well they have stood the test. Some 
of these principles, taken from observation of the 
school Avork, and from information given per- 
sonally, are the following : 

" The primary school should be organized as 
a general fundamental educational institution, 
common to the children of all classes of society. 
Its direction must be practical, and its system 
of instruction thoroughly educational. Since tlie 
mother is the chief educator in the home, the 
growing woman must be trained for her future 
vocation, and be made familiar with those facts 
that relate to the child's physical life and its 
education. To bring this about, nurseries and 
kindergartens should be connected with every 
public school. Iveligious and moral training, 
the teaching of orderliness and cleanliness, are 
more important re(piisites ibr the school to 



DEVELOPMENT OF MANUAL TRAINING 89 

fulfill than the teaching of book studies. In 
order to promote the practical tendency in the 
school work, much stress must be laid upon 
drawing, singing, music, and manual work. 

" The manual work is to be applied as a 
means of formal education ; that is, to develop 
the eye to the sense of form, and the hand to 
dexterity, not for a particular trade, but for pro- 
moting symmetry in general, and creating order- 
liness and neatness. Carpentry work, turnery, 
and smith's work are excellent means to this 
end. 

" The manual work is neither to be driven 
like a trade, nor to l)e regarded as a recreation 
or play. It must hold a position of equal impor- 
tance with the other subjects. For these reasons, 
it must be taught by pedagogically educated per- 
sons, pai'ticularly so in the country schools, where 
the general teacher should also give instruction 
in this kind of work. 

" The teacher himself must study the theory 
and its practical application. He must have a 
true conception of its aim as a means of for- 
mal training, and he must have learned most 
of the manipulations so as to be able to properly 
direct his class. I do not underestimate theo- 
retical lessons ; I believe that all work, even the 



90 THE HISTORY OF MANUAL TRAINING 

roughest manual labor, presupposes a mental mo- 
tive and a mental aim. 

" Just as the masses, who form the germ of 
society, should receive a higher education in 
order to acquire a nobler, more moral, and more 
ideal ambition for whatever work they may have 
chosen, so should the so-called better class be 
taught that God has not given the hands merely 
as limbs for taking food and drink, but rather 
as the most useful and ingenious of tools. 

'' I do not forget that the hand guides the pen, 
the paint-l)rush, and the operation knife, and I 
also value such wonderful work as it lias achieved 
in these directions ; but I would lay stress upon 
general hand dexterity as a most important ac- 
quisition to each and every one. Those of high 
or low station who possess this valuable treasure 
will better understand its worth in others. 

" Teach the child general manual dexterity, and 
the practical work will in time take a position of 
honor. The strife l)etween capital and lal)or will 
then be made far less severe." 



CHAPTER IV. 

ALFRED JOHANNSON'S NAAS MODEL SERIES. 



OTTO SALAMON'S INTRODUCTION. 

[Translated from the Swedish.) 

IN questions relating to educational matters, 
there is no danger so great as that of re- 
maining at a stand-still. These questions, like 
all things in this universe, are continually under- 
going change. Much that was yesterday found 
desirable can to-day hardly be used, and will 
to-morrow be discarded altogether. 

It is easy to admit the truth of this fact, with- 
out committing one's self to the error of saying 
that all that is old is l)ad, and all that is new, 
good. There are truths which can never grow 
old, though they may at times appear disguised 
under new forms ; while, on the other hand, 
many new ideas seem excellent until they have 
been subjected to the actual tests of experience, 
when they are found to be utterlv impracticable. 

91 



92 NAAS MODEL SERIES 

In educational matters, the golden mean must 
be chosen. On the one hand, we must be care- 
ful not to stagnate, not to offer ourselves as prey 
to the advocates of the old methods ; but, on the 
other hand, we should seek to avoid that restless 
anxiety to change a system of education which 
has hardly had time to be submitted to a fair 
trial, for a newer system which has perhaps 
never been tried at all. 

The true teacher will adopt the method which 
in his opinion is best calculated to produce a 
full development of the faculties, and will then 
see that his method is carefully and systemati- 
cally carried out. The teacher soon finds, by 
experience, that in educational matters " things 
are not always as they seem," and what appears 
clear and simple may really be of a very com- 
plex nature. 

The experienced teacher is careful not to 
jump at conclusions concerning any method ; 
he is not satisfied to accept what others may say 
regarding it, nor is he willing even to trust to his 
own judgment; but, Ijefore he will adopt a new 
metliod, he must know from personal observation 
and experience what results it yields. 

Educational Sloyd, one of tlie latest educa- 
tional methods, is as ^^'t in its first stage of 



OTTO SALAMON'S INTRODUCTION 93 

devolopmeiit. Tho fundamental i)rinc'iplos wliicli 
govern it are clearly defined, 1)ut the ({uestion 
as to the most advantageous application of these 
principles is still an open one. We have taken 
advantage of the investigations and suggestions 
made by others, and have availed ourselves of 
the results of their wide experiences. This 
applies in particular to the selection of our 
present series of models. A series of models 
which a few years ago was considered practicable 
is now found to be unsuitable. 

In an institution such as that at Naiis, 
where the avowed aim is to educate teachers, 
an}^ neglect to keep pace with the spirit of the 
times would have been inexcusable. The ex- 
periences gained from each course of instruction 
have been invaluable, and we have profited by 
the suggestions of the students themselves. 

Three hours a week were devoted to discussion, 
and it was then that each student had an oppor- 
tunity to express his ideas on the subject. In 
this way, with hundreds of eyes watching and 
criticising our work, it was comparatively easy 
to discover and correct the errors in the system. 
These changes, however, have not always been 
found to be improvements, and it has often been 
necessary to reinstate the older methods. 



94 NAA8 MODEL SERIES 

Tlio Niiils method, in contradistinction to the 
Nilas system, is that particular method which 
adopts the exercises of carpentry Sloyd as a basis 
for tlie educational manual Sloyd. Neither tools 
nor models should form the l)asis of any method ; 
for exercises performed with one tool do not 
become more or less difficult when practiced 
with the assistance of other tools, and models 
are merely chance expressions of various combi- 
nations of exercises. ^y exercises we mean 
work done by the use of tools, in accordance 
with delinite rules, designed to meet special pur- 
poses. 

The statement that "the models of the series 
are to ])e arranged in consecutive order accord- 
ing to their comparative difficulty, proceeding 
from the simple to the complex," refers, there- 
fore, to the series of exercises to be used, more 
than to the models which are the embodiment 
of the work done in these exercises. 

As to the choice of models, the following rules 
should be observed : 

1. All articles of luxury slionld ho oxcludod, and the 
models should have a practical value. 

2. The models should be such as can be finished by the 
pupils themselves. 



OTTO 8ALAM0N'8 INTRODUCTION 95 

3. They should be made entirely of wood; some of soft 
and others of hard wood. 

4. As little material as possible should be used. 

5. The work should not require polish. 

6. The models should require little or no turning and carv- 
ing. 

7. They should develop the sense of form and beauty. 

8. The construction of the series of models should require 
the use of all necessary tools, and the performance of the 
most important manipulations connected with wood-work. 

The practical work at the Naas Seminariuiii 
originally consisted of but one series of models. 
This has been changed so that the student can 
work out such a series as will be best adapted to 
the school in which it is to be used. We have 
at present three series with nearly the same exer- 
cises. Wherever possible, the same models are 
used in each of the three series. 

The three series of the Naas system are : " The 
Fundamental Series for Country Elementary 
Schools," " The Town Elementary School Series 
for Boys," and the " Higher Boys' School Series." 
The series for higher girls' schools has not as yet 
been completed. 

Otto Salamun„ 
Naas, March 18, 1890. 



96 



NAAS MODEL SERIES 



THE NAAS MODELS. 



/. Models in the Fundamental Series. 



(A Series for the Country Elementary Schools.) 



I. a. K i 11 d e r g a r t c n 

pointer. 
I. h. K i n d e r g a r t e n 

pointer. 
II. Rake tooth. 

III. Round flower stick. 

IV. Penholder. 

V. Rectangular flower 

stick. 
VI. Slate-pencil holder. 
yil. Key label. 
VIII. Thread winder. 
IX. Dibble. 
X. Harness pin. 
XI. Paper-cutter. 
XII. a. Pail liandle. 
XII. h. Part of an ox-bow. 

XIII. Small bowl. 

XIV. Hammer handle. 
XV. Spoon. 

XVI. Chopping Ijoard. 
XVII. Flower-pot cross. 
XVIII. Scythe sharpener. 
XIX. Scoop. 

XX. Clothes-rack. 
XXI. Flower-pot stand. 



XXII. 

XXIII. 

XXIV. 

XXV. 

XXVI. 

XXVII. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXI. 

XXXII. 

XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 

XXXV. 

XXXVI. 

XXXVII. 

XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 

XL. 

XLI. 

XLII. 

XLIII. 

XLIV. 

XLV. 

XLVI. 



Ax handle. 
Footstool. 
Barrel cover. 
Box. 
Ladle. 

Baker's shovel. 
Clothes-beater. 
Ruler. 
Bootjack. 
Lamp bracket. 
Weaving shuttle. 
Knife box. 
American ax han- 
dle. 
Match box. 
Baseball bat. 
Meter measure. 
Pen box. 
Stool. 

Try-square. 
Plate rack. 
Marking gauge. 
Rake liead. 
Picture frame. 
Tool rack. 
Douirh trout^h. 



THE NAAS MODELS 



97 



XLVII. 
XLVIII. 



Book-stand. 
Hooped bucket. 



XLIX. Cabinet. 
L. Table. 



//. Models in the Town Elementary Series. 

(A Series for the City Public Scliools.) 



I. 


a. Ki nd erg arte n 


XXV. 


Box. 




pointer. 


XXVI. 


Ladle. 


I. 


h. K indergarten 


XXVII. 


Baker's shovel. 




pointer. 


XXVIII. 


Clothes-beater. 


11. 


Parcel pin. 


XXIX. 


Ruler. 


III. 


Round flower stick. 


XXX. 


Bootjack. 


IV. 


Penliolder. 


XXXI. 


I^amp bracket. 


V. 


Rectangular flower 


XXXII. 


Weaving shut 




stick. 




tie. 


VI. 


Slate-pencil holder. 


XXXIII. 


Knife box. 


VII. 


Key label. 


XXXIV. 


American ax han 


VIII. 


Thread winder. 




die. 


IX. 


Bar. 


XXXV. 


Match box. 


X. 


Pen rest. 


XXXVI. 


Baseball bat. 


XI. 


Paper-cutter. 


XXXVII. 


Triangle. 


XII. 


Strop stick. 


XXXVIII. 


Pen box. 


XIII. 


Small bowl. 


XXXIX. 


Stool. 


XIV. 


Hammer handle. 


XL. 


Try-square. 


XV. 


Spoon. 


XLI. 


Plate rack. 


XVI. 


Choi:)ping board. 


XLII. 


Marking gauge. 


XVII. 


FloAver-i>ot cross. 


XLIII. 


Rake head. 


XVIII. 


Meter measure. 


XLIV. 


Picture frame. 


XIX. 


Scoop. 


XLV. 


Tool rack. 


XX. 


Clothes rack. 


XLVI. 


Dough trough. 


XXI. 


Flower-pot stand. 


XLVII. 


Book stand. 


XXII. 


Ax handle. 


XLVIII. 


Hooped bucket. 


XXIII. 


Footstool. 


XLIX. 


Cabinet. 


XXIV. 


Book carrier. - 


L. 


Table. 



98 



NAA8 MODEL SERIES 



III. Models in the High-School Series. 



I. 


a. K i n d r g a r t c ii 


XXIV. 


Book carrier. 




}){)intcr. 


XXV. 


Box. 


I. 


b. K i n d c r g arte n 


XXVI. 


Ladle. 




pointer. 


XXVII. 


Flower-press. 


11. 


Parcel pin. 


XXVIII. 


Coat stretcher. 


III. 


Round flower stick. 


XXIX. 


Ruler. 


IV. 


Letter opener. 


XXX. 


Bootjack. 


V. 


Rectangular llower 


XXXI. 


Lamp l)racket. 




stick. 


XXXII. 


Weaving shuttle. 


VI. 


Charcoal and pencil 


XXXIII. 


Knife box. 




holder. 


XXXIV. 


American ax han- 


VII. 


Key label. 




dle. 


VIII. 


Pack-thread winder. 


XXXV. 


Match box. 


IX. 


Bar. ■ 


XXXVI. 


Baseball bat. 


X. 


Pen rest. 


XXXVII. 


Triangle. 


XI. 


Paper-cutter. 


XXXVIII. 


Pen box. 


XII. 


Strop stick. 


XXXIX. 


Stool. 


XIII. 


Small bowl. 


XL. 


Try-square. 


XIV. 


Hammer handle. 


XLI. 


DraAving board 


XV. 


Pen tray. 




with frame. 


XVI. 


Chopping board. 


XLII. 


Marking gauge. 


XVII. 


Flower-pot cross. 


XLIII. 


Bracket. 


XVIII. 


Meter measure. 


XLIV. 


Picture frame. 


XIX. 


Scoop. 


XLV. 


Tool rack. 


XX. 


Clothes rack. 


XLVI. 


Tea tray. 


XXI. 


Flower-pot stand. 


XLVII. 


Book stand. 


XXU. 


Flower-press roller 


XLVIII. 


IIooi)ed bucket. 




and rests. 


XLIX. 


Calnnet. 


XXI 11. 


Footstool. 


L. 


Table. 



THE NAAS MODELS 



99 



Exei'cises in the Nads Model Series. 



I. 


Long cut with knife. 


XXII. 


8crai)ing. 


II. 


Cross cut with knife. 


XXIIL 


Obstacle ])laning. 


III. 


ObHque cut with 


XXIV. 


Perpend i c ular 




knife. 




chiseling. 


IV. 


Bevel cut with knife. 


XXV. 


01)li(|ue chiseling. 


V. 


>Sawing oif. 


XXVI. 


G o u g i n g with 


VI. 


Convex cut \vith 




gouge and 




knife. 




spoon-iron. 


VII. 


Long or xi\) sawing. 


XXVII. 


Concave chisel- 


VIII. 


Edge planing. 




ing. 


IX. 


Squaring. 


XXVIII. 


C]ioi)ping. 


X. 


Gauging. 


XXIX. 


Smoothing with 


XI. 


Boring with b r a c e 




s})okeshave. 




and shell-bit. 


XXX. 


Modeling or sliap- 


XII. 


Face planing. 




ing with sj)oke- 


XIII. 


Filing. 




shave. 


XIV. 


Boring with l)race 


XXXI. 


01)li(pie sawing. 




and center-bit. 


XXXII. 


Obli(]Ue i^laning 


XV. 


Convex sawing. 




(tapering). 


XVI. 


Concave cut with 


XXXIII. 


Smoothing up. 




knife. 


XXXIV. 


End planing. 


XVII. 


Bevel leaning. 


XXXV. 


H a 1 V i n g with 


XVIII. 


Modeling ur shaping 




knife. 




with })lane. 


XXXVI. 


Working in hard 


XIX. 


Cross-cut s a w i n g 




wood. 




with tenon or back 


XXXVII. 


Fitting in pegs. 




saw. 


XXXVIII. 


Beveling with 


XX. 


Wave sawing. 




oblique posi- 


XXI. 


Plane surface cut. 

7 




tion. 



100 



NAAS JJOL/1JL SERIES 



XXXI X. 
XL. 

XLI. 

XI. 1 1. 
XLJII. 
XLIV. 



XLV. 

XI AM. 
XLVll. 



XIA'III. 
XLIX. 



LIl. 
J. ill. 

LIV. 

I A'. 



(iluinj,'. 

Uorinjf with l)rad- 

uwl. 
S i 11 k i 11 



iron 



plates. 



Nailing. 

l*uucliin<i; in nails. 
Ijcvi'lin^ or cliaiui'c r- 

i n <;■ with draw- 

kuilV'. 
I'e r {) en d i c u la r 

j^ougini^. 
riain jointing. 
Dovetail clanij)- 

i ng (o 1» 1 i <( \\v 

grooving). 
()l)li(|ue gouging, 
("lianitering with 

chisel. 
Circular sawing. 
b'ixing with screws. 
Modeling w i th 

draw-knife. 
S (j u a re ]> 1 a, n- 

ing (ac r o s s the 

grain). 
Wedge {) 1 a n i 11 g 

(s ni o o 1 h i n g 

])laiu'). 
Planing with round 

or compass plane. 



LVi. Fixing with wooden 
})egs (for planing 
thin wood). 
LVII. Straight e dge 
grooving. 
LVIII. Dovetailing (com- 
mon). 
LIX. Planing with use of 
shooting-board. 
LX. Scooping out with 

outside gouge. 
LXl. Axle fitting (applied 
only to shuttle). 
LXll. Housing or square 
grooving. 
liXIII. Long ,ol)li(jUe plan- 
ing. 
LXIW Setting out (mark- 
ing divisions with 
chisel). 
LXV. Grooving with knife 
and chisel. 
LXN'l. (iluing with use of 
elamj)S. 
LX\dl. Sawing with key- 
hole saw. 
LXVllL ()l)li<|Ue edge groov- 
ing. 
LXIX. Slotting (mortising 
with s a w a n d 
chisel). 



FUNDAMENTAL SEIUKS 



101 



LXX. 


J^ovctailiiig ill 


LXXXl. 


llall'-concealed 




thick wood. 




edge-grooving. 


LXXI. 


Mitcriiig. 


LXXXII. 


Hollowing with 


LXXII. 


Mortising (c o ni- 




plane. 




111 o n a n d 


LXXXIII. 


Fixing bottom 




()bli(iue). 




of bucket. 


LXXlll. 


Halving with saw 


LXXXIV. 


Hooping. 




and chisel. 


LXXXV. 


Haunched ten- 


LXXIV. 


Rabbeting. 




on (concealed 


LXXV. 


Graving with V- 




mortising). 




tool. 


LXXXVl. 


Blocking (g 1 u- 


LXXVI. 


Half-lap dovetail- 




ing with use 




ing. 




of blocks). 


LXXVII. 


Fixing hinges. 


LXXXVll. 


Mortised block- 


LXXVIII. 


Fixing lock. 




ing. 


LXXIX. 


Double o b li(iue 


LXXXVlll. 


Vertical long 




dovetailing. 




sawing (foot 


LXXX. 


Ubli(j[Ue notching. 




sawing). 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES. 

To simplify niattors throughout theso sorius, the 
two broadest surfaces of any model will be called 
the sides; the two smaller surfaces in the direction 
of its grain, the edges ; and the two remaining 
surfaces, showing the ends of the fibers, will be 
called the ends. The expression "corners" will 
refer to the lines in which any surfaces meet. 
Geometrically speaking, this would be incorrect; 
but median ically — that is, in the language of the 
shop — it is not. 



103 NAAS MODEL SEBIEf^ 

The woods, white birch, cherry, red oak, and 
white wood, will be abbreviated, W. B., C, K. 0., 
W. W. Their prices are: birch, about $5 per hun- 
dred ; cherry, $7 ]jer hundred ; white wood, $4 to 
$6. Board measure is twelve inches square (sur- 
face measure) and one inch or less in thickness. 
The woods can be obtained in all thicknesses up 
to six inches, varying in each case by one fourth 
of an inch in thickness. The length varies from 
12 to 16 feet. Standard lengths arc 12, lo, 14, 
and 10 feet. Special lengths are 18 to 20 
feet. 

The dimensions will be given in the inch and 
the metric system. In Sweden the latter is used. 
On all the drawings, the dimensions are stated in 
inches. The fiUl dimensions do not always 
appear on the drawings, but they are given in 
the statements under each drawing. 

As the ordinary rule has no smaller dimen- 
sion than one sixteenth of an inch, each 
number of millimeters is expressed in the 
nearest c(juivalent in inches and sixteenths of 
inches. The abbreviation cm. represents centi- 
meter. 

All models, wlien linislied, are to l)e smoothed 
with sand-paper, but only on those })arts where 
the use of it is absolutely necessary. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 103 

Fine sand-paper, No. 1, should first be used; 
tlien coarse, No. or 00. 

The tools are always named in the order in 
which they are used for the making of the 
models. 

Model No. I. (a). 
Kindergarten Pointer of W. B. or C. (Straight Grain). 



ODl 



linch 

1 cm. 
Length, m in., or 10 rrn. TMrlnenn, -,^, in., or 0.7 cm. 

1. Cut a suitahle piece of wood in its entire 
length, so that two of its surfaces will he at right 
angles to each other. 

2. Cut the required thickness, having first 
measured same with an inch rule or meter 
measure. 

3. Taper the four sides, haA^ng drawn a small 
square on one of the ends. The ol)ject will now 
have the appearance of a regular four-sided trun- 
cated pyramid. Cut the corners, making a regu- 
lar octagonal truncated pyramid. Cut the corners 
again, making a regular cone. 

4. "Measure the required length and cut off at 
the l)road end. 

Exercises. — Long cut and cross cut. 



104 



NAAS MODEL SERIES 



Model No. I. (b). 
Kindergarten Pointer of W. B. or C. 



-3}^ 



B\ 'f -> 



1 1 1 ■ ■ ■ ' ■ 

1 inch 
1 cm. 



Lfvqth, 3i^ in., or 10 cm. 



ThirkncKs, ^. in., or 0.7 cm. 



1. rrocood as in No. I. [a), 1, 2, 3. 

2. Mako the two ol)liquo cuts (the entire work 
to l»e (lone with the Sloyd knife). 

Exercises. — Tj/ng cnt, cross caU, oblique cut. 







IVIodel 


1 N 


o. 


II. 








Ra 


ke 


Tooth 

3-, 


of 


W 


. B. 


or 


c 


-V 


' 








=^ 


\^ 


-1 iV 


— 


J 

->• 






UJ 1 1 1 1 L 

/ i licit. 


_i_i 











Lcnritli, 3,"„ iv., or cm. 



Tliickncus, J^f, in., or 0.8 cm. 



1. Proceed ns in No. T. (ff), 1 nnd 2. 

2. Taper as in No. T. {a). :'., luakin^- a regular 
four-sided truncated i>yraiuid. 



PVNDAMlCMTAL SERIES 105 

3. Chamfer the corners, as shown in drawing. 

4. Measure the length and cut off. 

Exercises. — Lo7ig cut, cross cut, bevel cut. 



Model No. III. 
Round Flower Stick of W. W. 

1 1 1 i^ 



1 inch 

i-i-i 

1 cm. 

Length, l\]f, in., orSOcm. Thicknefif!. ^a in., or 1 rm. 

1. Saw off from l)oar(l with rip saw a suital)le 
piece of wood a little longer than the finished 
length. Eemove this piece with the cross-cut 
saw. 

2. C'ut it in its entire length in tlie form of a 
square in cross section. Cut the corners, making 
a regular octagonal prism. 

3. Round it to a regular cylinder. Taper the 
end as shown in drawing. Measure the length 
and cut off. 

4. Round the end as shown in drawing. 

Exercises. — Solving off", Jong rut, cross cut, con- 
vex cut witJi knife. 



106 J^AAS MODEL SERIES 



Model No. IV, 
Penholder of W. W. 




Lenfffh .,71'^. in., or 'iO cm. Thic.kneutt, fi.,in., orl.Srw. 

1. Procoed as in No. III., 1, 2, 3. 

2. Taper as before. Measure the lengtli ' and 
cut off. 

3. Round the tliieker end. Tlie crescent- 
si i aped seat for the pen to fit in is made l)y 
l)orin<2; a series of lioles in the Hnes, as indicated 
by the drawino-, with a suitable twist-drilL 

Exercises. — Sawing off, loiifi cut, crn,9s rvt, con- 
vex cut. 

' In layinp; nut tho rlimonsions of a model, it is well to lay 
the rule down on one of its edges, placinji; it close to a mark 
previously drawn on the model from wliich the required 
measurement is to l)e taken. Use the point of the knifc> to 
mark out tlie measurem(Mit. 

It is hkewise advisable to lay out tlie mensurernent about 
one sixteenth of an inch more than the re(iuired dimension, 
so as to have a little spare room to work d(^wn on, in case of 
any slii^ht mistake, l^y followinti this rule throui^hout the 
series, it will l)e easier to make the work more coi-n^ct than 
if the exact dimension is laid out at the start, either by means 
of rule, com]>ass, or marking gauge. This also aj)plies to 
those measurements which of themselves arc exceedingly 
small. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 107 

Model No. V. 
Rectangular Flower Stick of W. W. 

1 n ' H -■> 



r3n> 



1 inch 

L-Li 

J cm. 
J.fnqth, 13 Jg m., or 35 cm. ThickmRH, f^, in., or 1 cm. 

1. Saw off along and across the grain of tlio 
l)oard a suitable piece of wood with rip and 
cross-cut saw. 

2. Plane face and edge at right angles with 
try-plane or fore-})lane. 

.3. Measure the thickness at each end with rule 
and plane down with try-plane, 

4. One end is made level with knife. Draw 
diagonals on it to obtain the point of the i)yra- 
niid. 

5. Mark out the length of the pyramid on the 
four sides. 

G. Cut oldiquely to produce pyramid. 

7. Measure the entire length and cut off. 

Exercises. — Saininr/ off, Jovg saimng, edge p/an- 
i7ig, squarivg, ohlique cut, convex cut. 



108 IfAAS MODEL SERIES 



Model No. VI. 



Slate-Pencil Holder of W. W. 



^ < — m—^ 

1 inch 1cm. 



Lenqlh, 71^ hi., or 20 cm, T/iirknctg, ^^ in., or 1.3rm. 

1. Remove from Itlock, witli rij) mid cross-cut 
saw, a suital)le piece of wood. (Jut as in previous 
model, making the four sides CMjual. 

2. Square off one end with knife, and (h-aw 
diagonal lines on tliis end, so as to locate tlie 
center. I]ore a hole with suital)le l)it. 

o. Measure the length and cut off. 

4. La}' out on tlie second end the re(luced 
square. Draw lines to indicate the re(|uire(l ta])cr 
on two opposite sides. Cut to these lines. Now 
la}^ out the lines of taper on the two remaining 
sides and cut to these lines. 

5. Reduce to its cylindrical foi-m witli knife 
and lialf-round flic. 

(^. Round the ends wifli file. 

Exercises. — Stiiiu)ifj ()j)\ Jovfj ciil, horliig with 
shell-hit, co}ivcx nit, rro-s.s^ cvt, jilnig. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



109 






Model No. VII. 
Key Label of W. W. 




/ 1 riff I 
/ em. 



Lengthy 4 in., or 10.1 nn. 



Brendth, l/,- in., 07'S.Scm. 



1. Prepare the wood as before. 

2. Plane face and edge at right angles with 
try-plane.' Gauge l)readth and plane down. 

3. Draw outlines with pencil, square, and com- 
pass. 

4. Bore the hole with gouge hit. Gauge thick- 
ness and plane down. 

5. Saw off the square end with hack cross-cut 
saw and cut the curved end with knife. Finish 
Ijoth ends with half-roinid file. 

6. Cut the notches. 

Exercises, — Sfvuiinrj off, rrof^,^ cut, rrlrjr planing, 

squaring, gauging, horiug 'H'lfh ^hrll hit, convex cui, 

cross cut, fling. 

' Even on surfaces of small area the Swedes use the try- 
plane, and the Sloyd is taii.ii:ht accordinti; to this practice. It 
is helieved that the child will he assisted in his work hy the 
weight of the tool itself. However, a-smoothing-plane might 
be used for such work as this. 



110 



NAAS MODEL SERIES 



Model No. Vim. 
Thread Winder of W. B. 



1 1 




O 














) 


1 
1 

1 

'! 

1 


1 
1 

1 


't 


v^ 


1 
1, 


1 

1 
1 ^_^ 


y 






b r 



Geometrical Construction. 



I I i-i I I I I I 

1 iiu-h 



J^nrilh, :l,'li (■/(., or !) cm. 




1 tiicli Ictn. 

2. 
Breadth, l-fr, in., or 4 cm. 



1. Proparo the wood as ])oforo, sawing out a 
picco al)out one half an inch longer than the 
finishecl length. 

2. Plane face and edge at right angles with 
try-plane. 

3. Draw the ontline as indicated in the geo- 
metrical construction (2), Avith pencil, square, and 
compass, allowing equal waste on each end. 

4. Th(> concave ends are ma<lc 1)V l»oring with 
a center-l)it. 

T). Oange the thickness and jdane down with 
try-plane.' 

'This object may first lie rcdurod to its rcquirod tliickness, 



funi)Ami<:ntal series ill 

6. Saw close to the lino with a fine compass 
saw, leaving' sufficient material so as to finish to 
the line with knife and tile. 

7. Slightly round the concave ends with knife 
and smooth with file. 

8. Smooth the edges with file. 

Exercises. — Sawhuj ojf, long swwing, face ])la)i- 
ing, edge planing, squaring, boring with center-hit, 
gauging, convex sawing, long cat, convex cut, concave 
cut, filing. 

Model No. IX. 
Dibble of W. W. 



-u;,-- 



/ inch 1 fill. 
Length.^ 11 Jjl in,., nv 30 ctn. Thickness^ 1 in., oi '2.h cm. 

1. Pre})aro the wood as before.' 

and then fkstcnud to anuthor piuci; of wood in the vise;, ami 
the openings for the concave ends may be carefully bored 
through from both sides. This, however, is not the " NiUis 
method." 

' In removing the wood from the block or board, it is best 



113 NA-iS MODEL SERIES 

2. Plane llice and uelgc at right angles with use 
of jack and try-plane. 

3. Gauge breadth and thickness and then plane 
down. 

4. Draw diagonals on each end and, from the 
centers thus obtained, describe circles within the 
given squares. 

5. Plane oflP the corners with try-plane, mak- 
ing the work octagonal. Then make it sixteen 
sided. 

6. Finish to a cylinder with the smoothing- 
plane. 

7. Taper one end with knife. 

8. Measure the length and saw off. 

U. liound both ends as indicated in the draw- 



ma'. 



to- 

10. Smooth with file. 



Exercises. — Saiuivg off, loitg sdunng, edge plan- 
ing, ,sqiiariiig, gauging, bevel pla>dn,g, convex sliapitig 
or modeling witli tlic plane, convex cat, cross ciU, filing. 



ill all cases to take tlic \nwv, (juite a little lonj;er, l)roa,(ler, 
and thicker than the linished leii,L!;th, hreadtli, and thickness 
ri'(|uire, hecause niure accurate results will l)e ohtained hy 
workin^f a model down to its correct dimensions with smooth- 
ing'; tools, such as the file, scraper, or spokeshavti, than by 
depending too much uiion the saw or jack-plane. Besides, 
a slight error can more readily l)e rectihed. 



113 



Model No. X. 
Harness Pin of W. B. 




_!_!_ 



/ iiicli, 
1 cm. 



Lemjih, 4 in., or 10 cm. 



BreadUi, \'i in., or 3 cm. 



1. Saw otr from block as in previous exercises. 

2. Dress the piece on its four sides with a small 
hand ax. 

3. Draw the form on each end as indicated in 
the drawing. Reduce to shape with knife. 

4. Locate the position of tlie recess with com- 
pass, and cut out with tenon saw and knife. 

5. Bore the holes with a suitable gouge or 
auger-bit.^ 

6. Smooth with file. 

Exercises. — Rawing off, chopping, long cut, cvo.svs' 
sawing with, tenon saw, concave cat, boring with shell 
bit, cross cut, convex cut, filing. 

The boring may hv done from both sides. 



lU 



Model No. XI. 
Paper-cutter of W. B. 




1 inch 
1 cm. 



Length, \\\}, in., or 30 cm. 



B^'eadUi., \^s ««•. or 3 cm. 



1. Saw off from block. Pliiiiu one face and 
edge at right angles with try-plane. Gauge the 
thickness. First saw off with rip saw and then 
plane down with try-plane. 

2. Draw outline as in drawing. 

3. First saw off with compass saw; then smooth 
the edges with knife. 

4. Pare off the broad surfaces from the outline 
of the back down to a center line (previously 
drawn). This center line will thus become the 
cutting edge of the paper-knife. 

5. Round the edges of the handle and the back 
edge of the blade with knife. 

0. Smooth with file and scraper. 

Exercises. — SawliKj <>lf, loinj ,^(i wing, facc planing, 
edge planing, .sipuiruig, ganging, wave mwlng, con- 
cave cu,t, coiivc.c cat, plane sarfacc cat, filing, scraping. 



r. SERIES 



115 



Model No. XII. (a). 
Movable Pail Handle of W. B. 



^=DD 



♦io**- 



LbiKjtli, \ipn i"-i O'' 37 t'"' 



-l^io 



1 inch 

1.1-1 
'1 cm. 



Breadth, {J in., or 2.2 cm. 



1. Prt3])ari^ the wuud as in previous exercises. 

2. Plane face and edge at right angles with try- 
plane. Gauge breadth and thickness and plane 
down. 

3. Draw outline according to the drawing. 
With the knife proceed to finish the surface adja- 
cent to the recess, a sufficient length to allow the 
remaining surface to he finished with a try-plane 
(obstacle planing). 

4. Finish the recess and the projection piece 
with tenon saw, chisel, and knife. 

5. Finish the depressions in the lower surface 
with tenon saw, chisel, and knife, having meas- 
ured their position by compass, square, and gauge. 

G. Measure the length and saw off at right 
angles with tenon saw. Smooth the ends with 
chisel. 

7. Smooth entire model with file and scraper. 

Exercises. — Saw'uKj olf, Ioikj sawuuj, face planing, 



lUi 



'perpendicular chiMiiiiij, Imuj cat, cross cat, oblique 
cat, bevel cat, Jilinjj, scrapiiuj. 







Model No. XII. (b). 
Part of an Ox-bow ' of W. B. 

X 



W V 1 J 1 J 



/ inch 



The iiiuusuiuiiiL'iils iiw j;iviii on tliu ilrawiiif; arc to hv Uoublcil in nmkiii^,' each piece of 

llie model. 

LciKjth, Zi\n ill... Ill- 00 cm. . lirtaiUli, X!]",, //(., uv (i..i.'j an. 

1. Prepare iliu wood as in previous exercises. 

'2. Plane face and edge at right angles with 
try-plnne. 

W. (Jaug(^ breadtli and tliickness. Phme down. 

1. I )raw outlines as in drawing with ('onii)ass, 
s<iuai'e, and mai'king gaugi;. liring out the form 
with rip saw, snioothing-plane, knife, compass 
saw, and chisel. 

5. Mark the position of tlie hole. Pore with 
C(.nitei"-hit iVoiii hoth si(k'S. 

' 'rill,' Swfilisli ()X-)i()W (■(iiisist.s of two pieces of wood sueli 
as the model, wlii<'li arc lasleiu'd lo,-;-etlier with a Unn iron 
cliaiii. This is uuhke the American ox-how, which is made of 
oiu- [tiei-e heat \\\ the form of Ww letter U. 



6. Measure the length and saw off with tenon 
saw. 

7. Finish tlio edges and ends witli chisel, file, 
and scraper. 

Exercises. — Saiviufj off, long sawing , face planiny , 
(d()c planiiuj, squaring, gauging, obstacle 'planing, 
convex sawing, perpendicular cfdseling, boring with 
center-bit, convex cut, cross cut, bevel cut, fding, scrap- 
ing. 

Model No. XIII. 
Small Bowl of W. B. 

Geometrical Construction. 




1 inch 



2. 



1 cm. 



Letifjtli, 3i'!j ill., or 9 cm. Breadth, 2,i; in., or j..") cm. 

1. Remove from Mock as in previous exercises. 



118 

^. naiic icioe ana uugo at right angles Avitli try- 
plane. 

3. Gauge thickness and plane down. 

4. Draw outlines on two opposite sides, accord- 
ing to geometrical construction (2), with try- 
square and compass. 

5. Saw off with frame compass saw/ and chisel 
close to the line. 

G. Smooth with file. 

7. Proceed to hollow out as indicated by draw- 
ing, with gouge and mallet, and linish with spoon- 
iron or spoon-gouge. 

8. Smooth the inside surface with sand-paper. 

9. Form the outside surface with chisel, knife, 
and file. 

10. Use the scraper for smoothing all tlie sur- 
faces. 

Exercises. — 8<JAuin(j off, loiaj sawing, face i')lan- 
i')i(j, edge idayiing, squaring, gauging, convex saw- 
ing, perpendicular chiseling, filing, goaging with 
gouge and spoon-iron, obliqac cJiiscling, convex cat, 
scraping. 

' All Swedish lifind saws are frame saws, except the tenon, 
keyhole, and grooving saws. The latter are small saws. The 
Swedes prefer the frame saws to either our larf2;e rip or our 
cross-cut saws, claiminii; that the wei,t>;lit of the frame makes 
the saAvini;- to a straiglit line easier. Their dexterity in lian- 
dlin^Li; these saws is tiuite remarkable. 



^^ A MENTAL BFAilES 
Model No. XIV. 
Hammer Handle of W. B. 

T 
J, 

J: — t- 



119 




1 inch 



1 cm. 
Lenrith, \\\l in., or 30 cm. Breadth, 1 ,•*,- f«., or 3.2 cm. 

1. Remove from block. 

2. Plane face and edge at right angles with 
try-plane. 

3. Draw outlines on opposite sides. 

4. Saw nearly to these lines with broad frame 
compass saw, and finish to the lines with spoke- 
shave. 

5. Cut away the corners with knife, and finish 
to elliptical form with spokeshave. 

6. Measure the length, and saw off Avith back 
saw. 

7. Finish with knife. Smooth with file and 
scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, long sawing, face plan- 
ing, edge planing, squaring, ivave sawing, smjOothing 
witJi spokeshave, hevel cut, modeling with spokeshave, 
cross cut, filing, scrapdng. 



120 



^^A8 MODEL SERIES 
Model No. XV. 
Spoon of W. B. 




Geometrical Consfrnction. 




1 iyich 1 cii). 



Length, 8{'f, in., or 31.5 cm. 



Breadth, 2i'n In., or 5.2 cm. 



1. Prepare wood as in previous exercises. 

2. Cut away with a small hand ax, so as to 
ol)tain approximate width and thickness. 

8. Plane face and eds^e at ri<;ht angles with 
jack and try-plane. Gauge a little beyond the 
required width and plane down. 

4. On each edge draw the oulliiic of the npjjcr 
side of the spoon, as indicate*! in second drawing 



121 

(side view ot ^^M^^^'^y^ ,^.,,.. and 

compass. 

5. Saw off with rij) and compass saw. Smootli 
with chisel and file. 

6. Draw on the surface tlius obtained an out- 
line of the upper surface of the model, according 
to geometrical construction drawing (2), with try- 
square and compass. 

7. Bring out the form of the sides with cen- 
ter-l)it^ and compass saw. Smooth with chisel 
and file. 

<S. The liollow is made as in No. XIII. 7. 
0. Draw outline of tlie lower surface of the 
model. 

10. Saw out with' compass saw. 

11. Finish the entire model with knife and 
smooth with file and scraper. 

Exercises. — Saumig off, cliojyping, face 'planing, 
edge planing, squaring, gauging, oblique sawing, 
wave sawing, oblique chiseling, boring vith center-bit, 
convex sawing, perpendicular cJiiseling, filing, goug- 
ing with gouge and spoon-iron, convex cut, concave 
cut, long cid, scraping. 

' In l)rin,t;inp; out tlio form of tho sides with tlio center-bit, 
it is best to bore from l)otli sides. Tlie opening; will then be 
cleaner. This will also ])r(>vent splitting on the lower side. 



122 



^^^■^ MonML s^n,^. 



,^, . . VI. V ll 



Chopping Board of W. W. 




1 inch 
Lfivf/th, 17|^ w., or 45.1 cm. 



Breadth, 5Jf; in., or in.l cm. 



1. Prepare the wood as in former exercises. 

2. Plane face and edge at right angles with jack 
and try-plane. Gauge breadth and plane down. 

3. DraAV outline of the ends with square and 
compass. Bore the hole with center-bit. 

4. Saw off the ends with back cross-cut and 
frame compass saw. Smooth the ends with chisel, 
smoothing-plane, and file. Gauge the thickness, 
and plane down with jack and try-plane. 

5. Smooth the sides and edges with smoothing- 
plane. Finish the edges and ends with scraper. 

Exercises. — Smriiif/ off\ fdcc pJaiiivg, edge jilmi- 
ing, sqitaring, gauging, boring ivith center-hit^ convex 
saving, perpendicvJar chiseling, end 'planing, filing, 
smoothing itp, scraping. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 123 

Model No. XVII. 
Flower-pot Cross of W. W. 



T-T 



i inch 1 cm. 

Length, r>f^ ??/ , n?- l-T cm. Birmlth, 1 f/!., or 2.5 rm. 

1. Saw from block a piece of sufficient length 
for the two parts of the model. 

2. Plane face and edge at right angles with 
jack and try-})lane. Gauge breadth and thick- 
ness, and plane down with try-plane. Saw into 
two parts of equal length. 

3. Lay out outline on these parts with com- 
pass, tr3'-square, and gauge. Draw the recess on 
one piece at the top, as shown by full lines of 
tlie drawing ; and on the other, at tlie l)ottom, 
as shown by dotted lines, so that they can be 
Joined in the form of a cross. 

4. Lay out outline of curved corners and of 
feet. Cut recesses, form of feet, and curved cor- 
]iers with knife. Fit together. 

Exercises. — Sau'ing off, long saiving, edge plein- 
iiig, squaring, gcmging, cross cut, long cut, convex 
cut, filing, hahing ivith knife. 



124 



;V^yl";i",S' MOJ)J<JL SPJRfES 



Model No. XVIII. 
Scythe Sharpener of R. O. 



-20-nr- 92- 




07' "2 ill.. Of 5(1 (•///. 



or 1;*. /■/(., (//■ 2.2 till. 



1. I*r('|):M"(' wood ;is in foi'mci" exercises. ri;me 
{':u-i' iiikI (mIl;!^ :ii |-ii;lil. iinjj;les willi lry-|)lnno. 
(«;iii_i;'e lliiekiiess ;iii(l plaiK^ down. 

2. liiiy (Mil, llie (lulliiK^ of llie l)I;ule with S(juaro, 
nil(!, and eoin|)ass. Shape with rip saw, jack- 
j)laiie, spokeslia\'e, knife, and lile.' 

.'). ()idliiie handle ~ wilh s(piai"e and compass, 
and make same with compass saw, knife, and 
spok((sha\'e. 

4. Measure iiie h'liglli, and saw oil' wilh leiion 
saw. 

''I'Ik- three dies used in tlie SJoyd work nre llie ll;il, llio 
liiUr-roiiiul, :iii(l th(> found file. TIk; I1;iI is used ou \A:\no 
surliU'cs, the liiiU'-rouiid on ))l;ine ;ind cufved suiT;iees, :ind 
the full round in lioles or (Uirvecl openings. 

'"' In m.-ikinj.!: •'"' handle, ;i, center line ni:iy hedr;i\\n, ••ind n. 
(•:u'(||io;ird teni|ilet iiKiy he employed, 'reiiiplels :ire not used 
in the Niiiis nietln»d. 



FUNDAMENTAL SKRIRS 



125 



5. Smo ^th tlie handle witli flat file and scraper, 
and the ev^ges of the blade with file. 

Exercises^ — Sawing off, long sawing, face 'planing, 
edge 'planing, squaring, ganging, obstacle pkmhig, 
smoothing with spokeshavc, wave sawing, modeli^ig 
with spoheshave, concave cut, con/vex cut, cross cut, 
oblique cut, filitig, scraping, workiiig iii hard wood. 



Model No. XIX. 
Scoop of B. 




1 inch 1 cm. 



Geometrical ronsfrnction. 




linch X cin. 

2. 



Length, 9,'„ in , or 24 cm. Breadth, 2|s in., w 7 cm. 

1. Prepare wood as before. Reduce it to 



120 NAAS MODEL SERIES 

approximate size with hand ax. Plane face and 
edge at right angles with jack and try-plane. 

2. Construct diagram of model as in drawing 
1 (a) with try-square and compass. 

3. Make the form with center-bit, rip saw, 
and frame compass saw. Smooth with smooth- 
ing-plane and chisel. 

4. Construct diagram as in drawing 1 (/>). Saw 
with rip and compass saw to bring out the form. 
Smooth with smoothing-plane and chisel. 

5. Tlie hollow is outlined with compass and 
gauge, and is made with gouge, mallet, spoon-iron 
or spoon-gouge, file, and scraper. 

(). Produce the form of the lower surface of 
the model with hand ax,^ smoothing-plane, and 
knife. Smooth the entire model with file and 
scraper. 

Exercises. — Sauing off, clioiijmui , face 'pinning, 
squaring, boring with center-hit, long saving, convex 
sawing, perpendicular chiseling, ohlicpie sawing, 
ohlicpie j)laning {tapering), oblique chiseling, gouging 
witJi gouge and sjw'on-iron, filing, modeling ivith 
plane, convex cid, concave cut, cross cut, scraping. 

' Tho hand ax is a too] not used by us for this purpose. 
We would take a chisel instead ; but the correct use of the 
hand ax is very inipoi-fant, and it will be found advisable not 
to substitute the chisel for it in the Hloyd work. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 1^7 

Model No. XX. 
Clothes Rack of W. W. 
-1511- 



n i =^ 



§ 4" i 




1 inch 
1 CTO. 

Length, 15}g in., or 40 cm. Bmadlh, 3,-c in., or8cm. 

1. Saw out a suitable piece of wood for the 
fiat portion of the model. 

2. Plane face and edge at riglit angles with 
jack and try-plane. Gauge breadth and plane 
down. 

3. Draw a center line the whole length of this 
piece, on which locate the position of the three 
holes for the pegs to be fitted in, and also locate 
the centers for the semicircular ends. 

4. With center-bit, carefully bore these holes 
at right angles to the surface of the plate. 

5. Outline diagram of the flat portion or plate 
of the model as in drawing («). Shape with 
frame compass saw, chisel, and file. Gauge thick- 
ness, and plane down with try-plane. 

6. Measure the required width of the chamfers, 
and mark same with gauge. Chamfer with try- 
plane, knife, file, and scraper. 



128 NAAS MODEL SERIES 

7. Plane the wood for the pegs in one piece 
with try-plane. Gauge width and thickness and 
plane down. Measure the length of each peg 
ahout half an inch longer than the required 
length, and saw oft' at right angles with tenon 
saw. 

8. Draw diagonals on one end of each peg. 
With the same center-bit ^ with which the holes 
in the plate of the model were bored, and with 
the intersection of each two of these diagonals as 
a center, describe a circumference. 

U. Draw outline of each peg as in drawing (6), 
measuring the exact length from the semicircu- 
lar end of each peg to the shoulder, so as to 
give the extra half-incli to the length of the j^eg 
that is to project through the plate. 

10. ]\Iake the pegs with tenon saw, chisel, 
knife, and file. Glue the pegs in position as 
indicated in the drawing, so that thc}'^ are at 
right angles to the plate, being careful that the 
hook in each peg-head is nearest to the top edge 
of the plate. 

11. Dress off the ends of the pegs that project 
through the rear of the plate with chisel and 
smoothing-plane. 

' A compass may also ha iisod lor tliis i»uri)ose. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



129 



12. Take a small piece of flat iron suitable for 
the hangers. Fold same together at the middle. 
File the ends into the shape indicated by the 
drawing. Make the holes with stamp and ham- 
mer. Fasten in position with wood-screws. 

13. Smooth the entire model with scraper. 

Exercises. — Scvwutg off, long sawing, face plan- 
ing, edge planing, squaring, gauging, boring with 
center-hit, convex sawing, perpendicular cidseling, 
filing, ohlique hevellng, hcvel cat, cross cut, convex 
cut, fitting in pegs, smoothing up, oblique chiseling, 
gluing, sinhing iron plates, scraping. 

Model No. XXI. 
Flower-pot Stand of W. W. 



'^a^ 



Length, 15}g in., or 40 cm. 



-16! 



T^ 



^2=3- 



linch 
lew. 



Breadth, Af^ in., or 11 cm. 



1. Saw off from board a suitable piece for the 
strips. 

2. Plane face and edge at right angles with 
jack and try-plane. 

3. Gauge thickness and plane down. 



130 JVAA^S MODEL SERIES 

4. Moiisuro the luiiglh, and saw olt' with tciioii 
saw. Siiiuotli the oiids in shuotiiig-huanl with 
try-pUinu. 

5. Mark tiio width of uach strip at uach end, 
and connect tlu; points obtained with penciled 
lines, leaving sufhcient s])ace between the lines 
to saw and dress. 

('). Saw out the strips with rip saw, and plane 
to recprired width witli try-plane. 

7. Saw out a suitable ])iece of wood suilicient 
lor the two legs. Plane lace and edge at right 
angles with try-})lane. 

«S. (jrauge breadth and thi(;kness and j)lane 
down. Saw in two ecpial })arts with tenon saw. 

9. Screw the two pieces in tlie vise, and smooth 
the ends with snioothing-plane. 

10. Draw outline of legs witli compass, try- 
square, and gauge, and work tlu; i)ieces to the 
lines witli tenon saw, chisel, knil'e, and iile. 

11. Nail down the stri})s at right angles to the 
Ujgs with suitable brad-head nails. Drive the 
nails below the surface of the wood with nail-set 
and hannner.^ 



' AVluTcver it is possible, racli nail sliould l»e driven into 
tlio wood in ;i sli,i;litly inclined direetion, niid always in the 
o])|)osite direction to thai in which liu' preeedinsj; nail has been 
driven in. This will make the work hold toij'etlier bettor. 



FUN DA MKNTA L SERIES 



131 



12. Sirootli the oiids of thu strips with lilu, 
and the uiitiru inudul with scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawiiuj off, long mwing, face plan- 
ing, edge platiirig, squaring, gauging, end plarilng, 
croHS sawing ivlth tenon-sate, cross cut, long cut, 
filing, nailing, punching nails, smoothing up). 

Model No. XXII. 
Ax Handle of W. B. 




<^ 1 - 



Laiijlh, iJHlil in., or 73 cm. 



-28 1 J— 
1 inch 
Icm. 



JJrcadlh, 2j\i in., vr cm- 



1. Saw olF from l^lock witli ri]) and cross-cut 
saw. Dress to approximate thickness with hand 
ax. Plane face and edge at right angles with jack 
and try-i)lane. Gauge thickness and plane down. 

2. Outline diagram as in drawing and saw oil 
with rip and frame compass saw. 

3. Cut the edges with drawing-knife. 

4. Sliape with smoothing-phme, spokeshave, and 
knife. Measure the length, and saw off with 
cross-cut saw. Smooth with file and scraper. 



132 



NAA8 MODEL SERIES 



Exercises. — Sawing ojf, cliopplng, fcce plan- 
iiKj, edge planing^ squaring^ gauging^ long sawing^ 
convex sawing, beveling with dtwio-knife, modeling 
with plane^ modeling ivith spoheshavi, oblique 2)lan- 
ing, concave cut, bevel cut, filing, scraping. 



Model No. XXIII. 
Footstool of W. W. 




linch Icm. 


1. 




Geometrical Coustiuction. 




■^I 4 








■" 


(^-7 




H 


.x. ■ 


^f^£ 


i.j 




1 \ 




^iik-* 


1 inch, 

1 ' ' ' 1 


1 cm. 






2. 





Length, \(\\% in., or 27 cm. 



linadih, 8;;3 in., or 32 cm. 



1. ]\Iake the strips in tlic saiiu; way 
Model No. XXI. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, G. 



as in 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 133 

2. Saw out from board a piece of sufiicieiit 
length for the two legs. 

3. Plane face and edge at right angles with jack 
and try-plane. 

4. Gauge the breadth and phine down. 

5. Saw at right angles into two equal i)arts 
with tenon saw. 

0. Nail the two parts together. Smooth tlie 
ends with smoothing-plane. 

7. Outline diagram as in geometrical construc- 
tion (drawing on both sides) with try-square 
and compass. 

8. Bring out tlie form with tenon saw, compass 
saw, chisel, center-bit, gouge and file. 

9. Take the legs apart, gauge the thickness of 
each, and plane down with jack and try-plane. 

10. Nail down the strips, driving the nails 
below the surface of the wood with nail-set and 
hammer. 

11. Smooth the ends of the strips with file, 
and the entire model with scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, hnxj sawing, face 'planing, 
edge jjlaning, squaring, gauging, end planing , convex 
sawing, perpendicular gouging, oblique sawing, 
oblique chiseling, boring with center-bit, filing, smooth- 
ing up, nailing, punching in nails. 



134 



NAAS MODEL SEHIES 



Model No. XXIV. 
Barrel Cover of W. W. 

■ V-''^rr 





Geoinutricul Coiif^truction. 

-l-iV 




J inch 1 cm. 

IHatneter, ISft in., or Mem. 

1. Saw off from block with rij) and cross-cut 
saw two pieces of equal size, which, when put 
together and dressed, will forni the completed 
disk.^ 

2. Plane flice and edge of each piece at right 

1 The disk may be iiindc citlicr ot" two or of three jiieces 
glued together, as may l)e I'ouiid i)relerable. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 135 

angles, taking especial care to plane the edges 
very smooth, as the pieces are now to be glued 
together, j While drying, clamp these pieces in 
the vise or otherwise.^ 

3. After the glue has dried, dress off the entire 
surface to a true plane. 

4. Outline diagram as in drawing 1 (a) with 
compass and rule. 

5. Lay out the position of the grooving in 
which the dovetailed tongue is to be fitted Avitli 
try-square, compass, rule, and marking awl. - 
Gauge the depth of the grooving. Remove so as 
to produce the groove, using knife, tenon saw, 
chisel, and router. 

6. Make tlie dovetailed tongue, being careful 
to plane same to a width which is to be a little 
more than the widtli of tlie groove. The sides 
of the tongue incline in the form of a wedge, 
and its depth in the form of a dovetail. 

7. Fit the tongue into the groove and glue it 
tightly in position. Plane down the projecting 
surface of tlie tongue flush with the surface of 
the disk. 



' Tt rnqniros tlirco to four lionrs for thn p;luo to harden. 

■ Tlio ol)jeet of this dovetuilecl tono;uo is to make the eover 
stronger, and to prevent it from warpino-. The grooving is 
laid out in the opj)osite direction to the grain of the wood. 



13G NAAS MODEL SERIES 

8. Gauge the thickness of the disk and plane 
down with jack and try-plane. 

9. The circular form is made with frame com- 
pass saw. Smooth the edge and l)ring out the 
form with spokeshave and file. 

10. Smooth the sides with smoothing-plane. 

11. Saw out with rip saAv a small piece of white 
l)irch suitable for the handle. Gauge the re- 
quired breadth and thickness, and plane down 
with tr3"-})lane. 

12. Outline diagram of tlie handle as in geo- 
metrical construction (2) with try-square and 
compass. 

13. Bring out the form with rip saw, chisel, 
smoothing-plane, knife, file, and scraper. 

14. As sliown in drawing, the lioles for the 
screws are to be bored at a sliglit inclination, 
with a suitable bit. Screw the handle in place. 

15. Finish entire model with scraper. 

Exercises. — Smimig off, fare planing, plane joint- 
ing, sqaaring, gluing, dorrfail clamjynig, gauging, 
circa lav flawing, miiooihiug irifJi sj)okcs]iarr, modeling 
'iiri/Ji. s^poh'^have, filing, long miring, coavex mwing, 
jierpeiidicitlar cliiscling, concave chiseling, niodeUng 
luitli plan(\ long cnt, herd cnf. boring irilh shell-hit, 
scrapi ng, fixi ng irilh scrt/rs. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



137 



Model No. XXV. 
Box of W. W. 



* 


l. 

1 

1. 

1 1 1 !• 


1 1 II 


•*- 


9i'g <■ 




Length, OvV in.-, or 23 cm. 



1 cin. 



T}?'fa(lfh, C^i% in., or 13 «w. 



1.^ Saw out with rip saw two pieces, eacli of 
sufficient length to make one long and one short 
side. 

2. Plane face and edge of each at right angles 
with try-plane. Gauge width and thickness and 
plane down. 

3. Measure the length of each side and each 
end with ruler and try-square, and saw off at 
right angles with tenon-saw. 

4. Smooth the ends of each of the four pieces 
in shooting-board with try-plane. 

5. Nail the parts together witli brad nails, 
having bored holes witli brad-awl. Drive the 
nails below the surface, using a nail-set and ham- 
mer. 

0. Smooth t1ie lower edges of the sides and 
ends with smoothing-plane. 



138 JVAAS MODEL SEIilES 

7. Saw out a suital)lo piece for the bottom of 
the box. 

8. Plane face and edge at right anglers. 

9. Gauge width and tliickness, and plane 
down. 

10. With rule and try-square, lay off the length 
one fourtli of an inch longer than the finished 
length. 

11. Saw off at right angles with tenon saw. 

12. Nail down the ])ottom of the box, l)eing 
careful that the box is square before completing 
the nailing.^ 

13. Smooth tlie entire model with smoothing- 
plane and scra})er. 

Exercises. — ^^dii'iiif/ off, lovfj ^aivhiff, fdcr j'^hining, 
edge pinning, ."^ffKiring, gauging, pldiiing wltli shoot- 
ing-hoard, nailing, jntnching in nails, smoothing ttp, 
scraping. 

' In nailing it is well to drive in the nails at the ojiposite 
ends first, and those in l)etween afterwards. This, in a meas- 
ure, ])revents the piece from sliit])ino: out of ])ositi(^n while 
fastening the parts together. 

The nails which are used in tlie Sloyd work are thin hrad 
nails a.1»out an inch and a lialf long. The common cut nails 
wiiuld not do as well for lliis work, because it is frequentl}'^ 
necessary to drive nails into very thin material, which would 
be a]it to split if rectangular nails were used. If brad nails 
cannot be (tbtainecl, the lieads of other round nails should be 
llattened with a hannner. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



139 



Model No. XXVI. 
Ladle of W. B. 




Oeomrtrical Construction. 



1 inch 




Lenff/h, 13,°,., in., or 34 cii 



2. 



Brcnilth, Sf,. in., cir S.6 cm. 



1. Saw off a suital)lc piece of wood from the 
l>lock. Cut it with hand ax to ai)proximate 
thickness. 

2. Plane face and edge at right angles with 
trv-])lane. 

3. Gange the l)readth one fourth of an inch 
more than the required dimension. Plane down 
with try-plane. 



140 JVAAS MODEL SERIES 

4. Construct on both side surfaces an outline 
of the upper surface of the model, as shown in 
upper part of drawing 1 (h). Saw out with rip 
and frame compass saw. Smooth witii smooth- 
ing-plane and chisel. 

5. Outline diac;ram as in geometrical construe- 
tion (2), with rule and compass. 

C). Bring out the form with center-bit, rip and 
compass saw. 

7. Smooth w^ith cliiscl and file. 

S. The hollow is made witli gouge, mallet, 
spoon-iron or spoon-gouge, scraper, and sand- 
paper. 

0. Construct outline of the lower surface as in 
drawing 1 {}>). 

10. Bring out the form with drawing-knife, 
spokeshave, and knife. 

11. Smooth the entire model with file and 
scrajx'r. 

Exercises. — S(nrin(/ (>(f\ vliappiiKj, J'.icc pJ<i tii iiji., 
xijiuir'niii, (/(iin/liH/, oh/'ninr smriiKj, con rex f<(uniiifi, 
oh/niiic j)/(i II i HI/, oJiliijiic chisel I iKj, honiKj ii'iiJi ('(iilcr- 
hil, jKi'jx iiiViciihir c/iis('/lii(/, (/(>'i</in(/ iri/Ji </oii</(' (i))(l 
.sjxxjii-iron, wave sawing, mode/in <j irifh draw-hiifc, 
mo(lrH')H/ irifh spnlyshave, long cut, convex cut, concave 
cut,/! ling, .scrajn ng. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



141 



Model No. XXVII. 
Baker's Shovel of W. W. or Pine. 




I inch 1 c.in-. 



Lfnr/fh, IS}* hi-, or 48 cm. 



nreadlh, 13,"n in., or 34 cm. 



1. Proceed as in Model No. XXTV. 1, 2, 3. 

2. Outline diagram as in above drawing. 

3. Proceed as in Model No. XXIV. 5, 6, 7, 8. 
The form is made witli frame compass saw. Bore 
the hole with center-l)it. 

4. Plane down to an inclined snrfiice witli try- 
])lane (square planing across tlie grain), and 
afterward witli smoothing-plane (wedge ])laning 
with smooth ing-})lane) . 

5. Smooth the edges with spokeshave, knife, 
and file. 



142 NAAS MODEL SEEJES 

6. Smooth entire model witli scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing ujf, cliopping, face planing, 
pkmi jointvug, squa.rmg, gluing, wave sawing, dove- 
tail clamping, boring 'imlh. center-hit, ganging, smooth- 
ing luitli spokcsluive, concave cut, convex cut, sepiare 
planing across the grain, wedge planing with, smooth- 
ing p)lane, nwdelhig with sjwkeshave, fding, scraping. 

Model No. XXVlll. 
Clothes-beater of W. B. or Alder. 



i iitch 1 cm. 



I 




Liiigth, \'~i\l in., or <15 cm. TirfmJtfi, 3,", in., or S rm. 

1. Prepare wood as in previons exercises. Dress 
to approximati^ tliickness willi liniid ax. 

2. l^lane face and edi;-e at ritijlit aii!;l('s with 
jack and try-phine. Gauge l)readtli and plane 
down. 

'). Outline diae^ram as in draw in 2; {h) on oppo- 
site edges. Saw out nearly to th(>se lines with 
frame compass saw. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 143 

4. Plaiiu down the concave surface with com- 
pass or circular plane, and the convex surface 
with smooth ing-plane. 

5. Outline diagram of the handle with try- 
square and compass. Saw out with compass saw, 
and shape with knife and spokeshave. 

G. Measure the length, and saw off at right 
angles with cross-cut saw. Smooth the broad 
end surface with snioothing-plane and chisel. 

7. Round the edges with spokeshave. Smooth 
with file and scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, chopping, face planing, 
squaring, gauging, convex sawing, planing with, round 
plane, smoothing up), concave cut, convex cat, end plan- 
ing, modeling with spokeshave, filing, scraping. 

Model No. XXIX. 
Ruler of W. B. 

< i"iC - 



o 



-ils- 



i inch 1 cm,. 

Lenqlh, 17}g in... or 45 cm. Breadlh. \\l in., or 4.t cm. 

1. Prepare wood as in previous exercises. 



144 NAAS MODEL SERIES 

Pkiiiu facu and edge at right angles with try- 
plane. 

2. Gauge the breadth and plane down. 

3. Mark out the position of the hole with 
compass, and bore same with center-bit. Gauge 
the tliickness, and saw off with rip saw. 

4. As the model piece is now too thin to be 
held in the iron pins of the bench, it must be 
fixed with wooden pegs on a perfectly level foun- 
dation piece. This foundation piece is to be at 
least an inch broader than the model })iece. 
The model piece is fixed by boring witli a pin-bit 
through it into the foundation piece about an 
inch on each side beyond the required length. 
Two pegs are fitted in to hold the model piece in 
position. 

5. Plane down to re({uired thickness. The 
bevel on either side is made with try-plane. 

G. Measure the length and saw oft" at right 
angles with tenon saw. Smooth the ends with 
knife and file. 

Exercises.— Sawing ojf, long saudng, face planing, 
edge 2)lAWjiiig, sqaaring, !/""g'>ig, Iforlng with center- 
hif, horing with sliell-hit, fixing with wooden pegs (for 
planing thin wood), beveling ohliquely, cross cat, 
filing, scraping. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



145 



Model No. XXX. 
Bootjack of W. B. ; Foot of W. W. 




Il r.li i.l LU 

1 ivch ' '-■"•'. 



1. 



Geometrical Construction. 




-13,V 



I. !. ft rill 
1 inch 



Length, 131%- in., or 34 C7n. 



Breadth, 4fs in., or 10.8 cm. 



1. Saw from block a suital)le piece of wood 
with rip saw. Plane face and edge at right 
angles with jack and try-plane. 



14f) NAAS MODEL SERIES 

2. Outline diagram as in drawing No. 1 (a) 
with try-square and compass. Dimensions are 
to be measured from a center line drawn the 
entire length of the wood. Saw out with rip 
and compass saw. Gauge the thickness, and 
l)lane down with try-plane. 

3. Smooth the edges with spokeshave and 
chisel. 

4. Saw out with rip saw a small piece of W. 
W. for the foot. Plane face and edge at right 
angles. Gauge thickness and plane down. 

5. Mark out the position of the grooving with 
compass, marking awl, try-square, bevel, and 
marking gauge. Remove so as to make the 
groove with knife, tenon saw, and chisel. 

6. Make the dovetailed tongue of tlie foot, 
using marking gauge, bevel, and knife. Fit the 
foot into the groove and glue it fast, driving it 
in firmly. 

7. Saw olf with tenon saw the })rojecting ends 
of the foot. Smooth with smoothing-phme. 
Finish the edges with spokeshave, lile, and 
scraper. 

S. Lay out tlie lines on each edge, indicating 
the inclination of the lower surface of the foot 
and body with pencil and rule, l^^iuisli to these 
lines with tenon saw and smootliing-plane. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



147 



9. Round tlio corners with spokesliuve, knife, 
and file. Smooth with scraper. 

Exercises. — iSawimj off, long sawing, face i^laning, 
edge planing, squaring, oblique sawing, convex sawing, 
gauging, smoothing with spokeshave, concave chiseling, 
straight edge grooving, gluing, end planing, oblique 
planing, modeling with spokeshave, concave cat, con- 
vex cut, cross cut, filing, scraping. 

Model No. XXXF. 

Lamp Bracket of W. W. 

Geometrical Construction. 




■ X inch 1 cjii. 

Length, ItJ J i«., <ir 25 cin. 

1 . 



1 inch. 



1 cm. 



Breadth, 4}g in., or 12 cm. 



1. Saw out a piece of wood of sufficient size 
for the back and bottom. Plane face and edge of 



each at right angles. 

10 



148 NAAS MODEL SERIES 

2. (Jjiui^e bruudth and tliicknoss and plane 
down. Measure the length ol" eaeh, and .saw oil' 
with Icnon saw. 

'■>. Smooth the end surfaees in sliooting ])oard 
with try-})hine. 

1. The l)ack and the l)()(t()in piece an; now to 
l)e dovetailed togetlier. Lay out the mortises on 
the h;ick {)ieee as ill drawing 1 [h), using compass, 
rule, and hevel. JVhirk out the depth of the 
mortises e<pud to the thiekiiess ol" the wood. 
iMake the mortises with tenon saw, ehisol, and 
inallet. 

I 5. Outline diagram of the tenons on the bot- 
tom piece hy tracing each mortise on one of the 
(Mid surfaces of the l)ottoni piec^e with marking 
awd or knife. 

('). Make the length of the tenons e(pial to 
thickness of the wood, and mark this out with 
[x'licil and try-s(pia-re. 

7. Make the tenons with tenon saw, chisel, and 
mallet. 

<S. ()utline diagram of the i)ack piecHf as in 
gt;omc(ri(*al construction (2), with compass and 
try-s(piare. 

9. Saw out with compass sa,w. Smooth with 
knife and lile. 

10. Imu'c! {\]v holes in the hack piece, the larger 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 149 

one with cuiiter-bit, and the smaller with brad- 
awl. 

11. Measure the length of the bottom, and saw 
off with tenon saw. Smooth the edges in shoot- 
ing-board. 

12. Smooth tlie inner surface of the Ijaek and 
bottom with smoothing-plane. Carefully fit mor- 
tises, using the knife, and glue the back and bot- 
tom together. 

1'). Saw out in one length the three side pieces 
that form tlie rim of the box of the bracket. 
Plane face and edge at right angles. Gauge 
breadth and thickness and plane down. 

14. Saw into three equal })arts. Smootli the 
ends in shooting-board. 

15 Outline diagram of each, and make with 
knife. Smooth with file. Nail down to the back 
and bottom. 

16. Smooth all outer surfaces with knife, 
smoothing-plane, and scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, long sawing, face pkmingj 
edge planing, sqaaring, ganging, j^lanirig im slioot- 
ing-board, common dovetailing, convex sawing, con- 
cave cut, long cut, convex cut, cross cut, filing, boring 
ivith center-bit, boring with brad-awl, gluing, nailing, 
punching in nails, smoothing up, scraping. 



150 



NAA8 MODEL SERIES 



Model No. XXXII. 



Weaving Shuttle of W. B. 




lOf 



1 inch 1 cm. 



Length, lOf's in., or 26 cm. 



Breadth, ly";, in., or 4 cm. 



1. Saw off from block a suitable piece of wood 
somewhat larger than the model. Plane face 
and edge at right angles with try-plane. 

2. Draw outline as shown in drawing («). Saw 
out with frame compass saw. Smooth the edges 
with spokeshave and chisel. 

3. The position of the hollow is outlined with 
compass. The hollow is made with outside gouge 
and mallet. Smooth with sandpaper. 

4. Gauge thickness and plane down with try- 
plane. 

5. Outline diagram as in drawing {h) on both 
edges. Saw out with compass saw, and smooth 
with s})okeshave and knife. 

0. Make the axle of the bobbin with knife. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 151 

Fit same into the hollow with brad-awl and 
chisel. 

7. Smooth entire model with file and scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off] lonfi miving, face planing, 
edge planing, squaring, convex sawing, smoothing with 
spokeshave, perpendicular chiseling, scooping luith 
outside gouge, gauging, convex cut, long cut, boring 
with brad-awl, fitting axle (shuttle^ , filing, scrapAng. 

Model No. XXXMI. 
Knife Box of W. W. 




152 



IfAAti MODEL SERIES 



Gconiotiical Construction, 




lAnch 



Lenfilh, ll}il ?«., or 30 cm. 



Brtadth, Tfl. in., or 19 cm. 



1. Saw out with rip saw two piocoR of wood, 
eacli of sufficient length for one long and one 
short side of the box. Plane face and edge at 
right angles. Gauge the required width and 
thickness and plane down. Measure the length 
of each piece, and saw off at right angles with 
tenon saw. Smooth tlu^ edges and ends in 
shooting-board with try-plane. 

2. Mark out the position of the grooving in 
which the handle is to fit on the inner surface 
of the two short side pieces, with compass, try- 
square, and marking gauge. Make the groove 
with knife and chisel. 

3. Make the dovc'tailing as in Model No. 
XXXT. 4, 5, n, 7. After smoothing the inner 
surfaces of the four j)ai-ts, glue these together. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 153 

4. Saw out a suital)le pieces for tho liandle. 
Plane face and edge at riglit angles. Gauge 
breadth and thickness and })lane down. 

5. Outline diagram of handle as in geometrical 
construction (2), with try -square and compass. 
Make the handle with center-bit, compass saw, 
knife, and file. Smooth the ends in shooting- 
board with try-plane. 

6. Finish the outside of box with smoothing- 
plane. 

7. Fit the handle into the grooving (housing 
or square grooving), using the smoothing-plane 
and knife. 

8. Saw out a suitable piece for the l^ottom. 
Plane face and edge at right angles. Gauge 
breadth and thickness and plane down. Meas- 
ure the length, and saw off at right angles with 
tenon saw. 

9. Make the convex edges and ends of the 
l)Ottom with smoothing-plane and file. 

10. Nail down the bottom with brad nails, 
driving the nails below the surface of the wood. 

11. Smooth the entire model with file and 
scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, long sawing, face planing, 
edge 'plaving, squaring, ganging, 'planing in shoot- 
ing-hoant, common dovetailing, housing or square 



154 



NAAS MOnnJL SERIES 



(jrooving, gluing, Ixjring inillr coder-hit, wave sawi/ng, 
convex cut, co'ncdvc cut, cross cut, long cut, filing, jplain 
jointing, smoothing wp, modeling with 'plane, nailing, 
punching in nails, scraping. 



Model No. XXXIV. 
American Ax Handle of R. O. 




LengfJi, 18}^ i«., or 48 rw.. 



Breailthy a,*;, in., or fi.5 cm. 



1. Saw out from block a snila])l(' })iece of 
wood witli rip saw. Plane fane and edge at 
rii;'lit angles. 

2. Outline diagram as in drawing al)ove, and 
saw out with frame compass saw. 

3. Gauge thickness and plane down. 

4. Round the edges with drawing-knife, and 
shape with spokeshave. 

5. Outline diagram of the end surfaces, and 
form to the same, using drawing-knifes, spoke- 
sjiavc, and smooth ing-[)lane. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



155 



6. Measure length, and saw oft' at right angles 
with tenon saw. Smooth with file and scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, wave sawing, face planing, 
gauging, smoothing with spokeshave, beveling with 
draw-knife, modeling luith spokeshave, modeling with 
plane, filing, scraping, working in hard vjood. 



Model No. XXXV. 
Match Box of W. B. 



Geometrical Construction. 





1 inch 



Lcnf/f/i, 7^c «"■> or 19 cm. BrmiUh, S,^. hi., w 8.5 cm. 

1. Saw out the several parts with rij) and cross- 



156 NAAS MODEL SERIES 

cut saw. Piano face and odgo of each at 
riglit angles with try-piano. Gauge breadth and 
thickness of each part, and plane down. (The 
back or wall piece when planed down is ad- 
justed with wooden pegs to a foundation piece, 
as in Model No. XXIX.) 

2. ( )utline diagram of wall i)iece as in geomet- 
rical construction (2) with try-square and com- 
pass. Sliape same with knife. Smooth with 
file. 

3. Bore holes with center-bit and brad-awl. 

4. Make the dovetailing as in Model No. 
XXXI. 

5. After the lower edges of the box have been 
smoothed with file, the bottom is glued fast, and 
held in clamps in position to dry. 

6. The box is rounded with knife, and 
smoothed with file and scrapei-. Nail down tho 
wall piece. 

7. A piece of emery or fine sandpaper ma}'' be 
glued on the front surface of the wall piece, near 
the lower end, as indicated by the lines on tho 
drawing. 

Exercises. — Rawing off, long sanmig, face planing, 
edge ijlani iig, squaring, ga aging, leaning ivifh. ronnd 
or com,j)ass plane, boring /rllh center-hit, concave cut, 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



157 



loiif] cut, rms.s cut, convex cui, filing, phming in 
shooting-board, common doveta/Uing, gluing 'witli, use 
of clamps, nailing, hcjring witJi brad-awl, scra'ping. 



Model No. XXXVl. 
Baseball Bat of W. B. 




■1 inch 



Lnl(|fh,^^ ni in., or 80 cm. 



1 cm. 
Breadth, \fi., in. nr li% in. ; or 3 or 4 c?n. 



1. Saw off from block a siiila])lo piece of wood. 
Plane face and edge at right angles with try- 
plane. Gauge thickness and plane doAvn. 

2. Proceed as in Model No. IX. 4, making the 
work first rectangular, then octagonal, and then 
sixteen sided. Round with try and smoothing- 
plane (the planing to be done from the lower to 
the upper end). 

3. Measure the length, and saAV off at right 
angles with tenon saw. Shape the ends with 
knife. 

4. Smooth with file and scraper. 

Exercises. — Saiving off, long sawing , face planing , 
scpiaring, gauging, long oblique ptlaiiiiig, bevel plan- 
ing, modeling with pjlane, convex cut, filing, scraping. 



158 



NAA."^ MODEL SERIES 



Model No. XXXVII. 



Meter Measure of W. B. 




Lenf/lli, 25111 ;,/;., oj- 05 cm. 



Breailth, \% la., or 2.2 cm.. 



1. I*ro[)iir(' wood as in provions exercises. 
Piano face and od«j;o at Y'\\i}\i an^los. Gauge 
breadtli and tlnckness, and })lano down. 

2. Lay out on oacli end the finished width, 
and connuct tlicsci points l)y lines indicating the 
taper. Plane down to these lines with try-plane. 
Afark (n\{ the divisions with eoni})ass, tr^^-sqnare, 
and 1)rad-awl. 

3. treasure the length, and saw ofT at right 
angles with tenon saw. 

4. The position of the hole is laid ont with 
compass and l)ored with center-hit. 

5. Outline diagram of handle, and shape with 
chisel and knife. Smooth with f\\Q: and scraper. 



Exercises. — ISiuvhuj o//', loiuj .^(LH)i)i<j, cdf/f planing, 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



159 



squaring, gauging, oblique 2)laning, setting out {mark- 
ing division lines with chisel), boring witli center-bit, 
cross cut, oblique chiseling, perpendicular chiseling, 
long cut, convex cut, filing, scraping. 



Model No. XXXVm. 



Pen Box of W. B. 



1 inch 



Length, 9nj in., ur 34.1 cm. 



T 



c 



Breadth, 2|g in., or 7 i'.m. 



1. Regarding the planing of the parts and the 
dovetailing, refer to Model No. XXXIII. 

2. The groove in which the cover slides is 
made with gauge, knife, and chisel. 

3. Fit the cover into the groove with smooth- 
ing-plane. The bottom of the box is smoothed 
with smoothing-plane and glued down. Hold 
in clamps or hand screws until the glue has 
hardened. 



IGO 



NAA8 MODEL SERIES 



4. Smooth the outer surfaces with smoothing- 
plane and scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing out, long sawing, face j)laning, 
edge ^9^<27i/7ir/, squaring, gauging, planing in shootr- 
ing-boanl, common dovetailing, grooving luith knife 
and dvlsd, gluing with use of damps, fixing luith 
wooden pegs (fur planing thin tvood), cross cut, 
snioothlitg ap, scraping. 



Model No. XXXIX. 



Stool of W. W. 




1. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 

Geometrical ConBtmction. 



161 




1 inch 



Length, ISj^^ in., (//•4U cm. 



3. 

Breadth, 8^a in., o;'21 cm. 



1. Saw out the parts as in previous exercises. 
Plane face and edge of each at right angles. 
Measure breadth of each and plane down. Gauge 
thickness of each and plane down. 

2. Nail together with two nails the parts in- 
tended for the legs so that both legs may be 
made at the same time. 

3. Measure the length, saw off with cross-cut 
saw, smooth the upper ends in shooting-board 
with try-plane. 

4. Mark out the angle of inclination of the 
legs with bevel and marking gauge, and plane 
down to the line with smoothing-plane. 

5. Outline diagram of the legs Avith try-square 
and com[)ass, and bring out the form with 



162 JVAA8 JIODEL SERIES 

center-bit, coin})ass saw, and knife. Smooth with 
file. 

G. Measure the length of the top piece, and 
saw off at right angles with tenon saw. Smooth 
the edges with smoothing-plane. 

7. j\Iark out the position of the grooving for 
the legs with compass, try-square, marking awl, 
bevel, and marking gauge. 

8. Make the grooving with knife, tenon saw, 
chisel, and rabbet-plane. 

9. Draw diagonals on the U[)})er side of the to}) 
piece, in order to iind its center. 

10. Lay out the position of the oval opening 
in the top piece, and make same with center-bit, 
keyhole saw, knife, and file (boring two holes 
with center-bit, and sawing between these holes 
with keyhole saw). 

11. After fitting the legs carefully into the 
groove with knife, glue them into position. 

12. Nail together the two pieces intended for 
the sides. 

13. Outline diagram as in geometrical con- 
struction (2), and finish to these lines with tenon 
saw, franu! coni})ass saw, smoothing-plane, chisel, 
knife, and file. 

14. Nail down the side pieces. Drive the nails 
below the surface, using the nail-set and hammer. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



163 



15. Smooth tliu top and sidu burfaccs with try- 
plane and smooth ing-plane. 

16. Smooth all other surfaces with file and 
scraper. 

Exercises. — ■Sawing off, lomj sawi)i[/, face ylaning, 
edge plaid I i(j, 'plain joiutiug, squaring, gluing, gaug- 
ing, end p)laning, obliqicc p)kming, boring with center- 
bit, convex sawing^ convex cut, filing, oblique edge 
grooving, sawing with keyhole saw, wa.ve sawing, 
concave cut, long cut, perpendicular chiseling, nail- 
ing, oblique cut, bevel cut, pjunching in nails, smooth- 
ing up, scraping. 

Model No. XL. 
Try-square of W. B. 









o 


_!-__ 


CFiiliiiJ LU 
1 inch 1 cm. 


■ 



LeiKfth, 9^5 in., or 25 cm- 



4^ 

Breadth, 2 in., or 5cm. 



1. Saw out tlie two parts (stock and blade) 

with rip and cross-cut saw. Plane face and edge 
11 



^^i NAAS MODEL SERIES 

of each at right angles. Gauge breadth and 
thickness and plane down. 

2. Smooth one end of the stock in shooting- 
board with try-}3lane. Mark out the position of 
the open mortise for the blade with comi)ass, 
try-s(|uare, and mortise gauge. Fit the stock 
and Ijlade carefully togetlier. (due and hold 
in clann)S or hand screws. 

3. Smooth all outer surfaces with smoothing- 
plane. 

4. ]\[-easure the length, and saw oft' at right 
angles with tenon saw. 

5. Smooth the end surfaces in shooting-board 
with try-plane. Mark out the position of the 
hole with compass and try-square; bore hole with 
center-bit. 

0. Smooth with scraper,^ 

Exercises. — Saui'iig off, long sawing, face iilaning, 
edge j)I<ining, squaring, gauging, "planing in shoot- 
iiig-hoard, sloffitig (mortising with saw a)id chisel), 
gluing irith vse of claiiij'S, horing with center-hit, 
smooth nig iij>, xcraping, working iih hard, wood. 

^ 111 ni;il-;iiiL;: Hiis model, it is of tlir utmost im|)ort;inee that 
special care betaken to worlv down to exact dimensions. It 
is ne(;essarv that the try-square be made :d)Solute]y accurate, 
and tlierelbre no wood should be used which has not been 
thoroughly seasoned. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



105 



Model No. XLI. 
Plate Rack of W. W. 



"V 



/ inch 1 cm. 



si \] M SI \) M Nj Nj M si SI \ 



-ItV 



AAA 




1. 



Geometrical Coustructiou. 




-\-l\-^^-h-^- 



Length, 19JJ j«., or 50 cm. 



2. 



Breadth, ^{'^ i-i., or 10 cm. 



166 NAA8 MODEL SERIES 

1. Saw out tliu parts for tliu sidus with rij) saw. 

2. Piano face and edge at right angles with 
jack and try-plane. Gauge breadth and thick- 
ness and plane down. Measure the length, and 
saw off at right angles with tenon saw. Smooth 
the ends in shooting-board witli try-phine. 

3. The dovetailing is made as in Model No. 
XXXI. Nail the two long sides togetlier. (Jut- 
line diagram of the form on opposite surfaces 
with compass, try-s(|uare, and gauge. Bring 
out the form with frame compass saw, gouge, 
spokeshave, knife, and tile. Separate the parts. 

4. Mark out the position of the notches with 
compass, try-square, and gauge, and cut same 
with tenon saw and knife. 

5. Smooth the inner surfaces with smoothing- 
plane. Glue the parts together. 

G. Saw out the piece for the bottom. Plane 
face and edge at right angles. Measure Ijreadth, 
gauge thickness, and plane down. 

7. Smooth tlie lower edges of tlie four sides 
with smoothing-plane. Nail down the bottom 
piece. 

8. Smooth all the outer surfaces witli try-])lane 
and smoothing-plane. 

9. Saw out a suit;i1)l(' piece for tlic four feet. 
Plane face and edgc^ at right angles. ( )utHne 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 167 

diagram with try-squaro and compass, and form 
witli chisel and gouge. Nail down. 

10. Saw off a suitable piece for the plate-rest. 
Plane face and edge at right angles. 

11. Measure breadth, gauge thickness, and plane 
down. 

12. Saw off at one end at right angles with 
tenon saw. Smooth in shooting-board with 
smoothing-plane. Outline diagram of plate-rest 
as in geometrical construction (2) with try-s(|uare 
and compass. 

13. Form with center-l)it, compass saw, smooth- 
ing-plane, chisel, gouge, and file. 

14. Mark out tlie position of the two holes in 
tlie long sides in wliich nails are to be driven to 
liold the plate-rest. (These nails form pivots 
upon which the plate-rest may b(i turned down 
when not in use.) 

15. Bore the holes with brad-awl, and nail the 
plate-rest in place. 

IG. Smooth the entire model with scraper. 

Exercises. — Smrivfj off, loncj snivinr/, face jiJan- 
ing, edge j^Ianing, squaring, ganging, 'planing in 
si tooting -hoard, dovetailing in thicJc mood, convex 
saicing, swoothivg irith spokeshave, j)erperidicnlar 
gouging, long cut, cross sawing with tenon saw, 



168 



NAAS MODEL SERIES 



oblique cut, cross cut, smoothing up, gluing, nailing, 
punching in nails, mitering, oblique chiseling, end 
planing, boring with center-bit, oblique satuing, oblique 
planiiig, perpendicular chiseling, modeling with plane, 
oblupie gou,ging, boring with brad-awl, fitting axle. 



scraping. 



Model No. XLII. 



Marking Gauge of W. B. 






^ 


'S- 


■\ 


OI 











-9iV 



1 inch 



1 b 



1 CM. 



Length, 5,',! Ji., nr 13 nn. 



BreniUh, \\l in., orA.hcm. 



1. Saw out tlio several parts (head or stock, 
l)ar, wedge, and key)' witli rip and eross-eut saw. 

* The marking gauge consists of four parts. The stock is 
tlic handle. The bar is the blade which moves up and down 
in the stock. The wedge holds the bar in i)()sition. The key 
is a smallcv wcdtie. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES lG9 

Plane face and edge of each at right angles. 
Gauge the breadth and thickness and plane 
down. 

2. Mark the position of the mortise with com- 
pass, try-square, and marking gauge,^ and make 
same with firmer-chisel and mallet. 

3. Measure the length of tlie head or stock, 
and saw off with tenon saw. Sliape its ends with 
chisel. 

4. Fit the bar into the mortise witli smooth- 
ing-plane. Measure the lengtli of the bar, and 
saw off with tenon saw. Shape with knife. 

5. Make the wedge and the key with tenon 
saw, smootliing-plane, chisel, and knife. 

G. Smootli all the ])arts with file and scraper, 
and fit together. 

Exercises. — Satving off, long sawing, face 'planimg, 
edge plaiting, squaring, gauging, mortising (corn- 
m.on and obl/upir), jJcrjDendicular chiseling, sino< till- 
ing up, cross cut, long cut, convex cut, modeling 'iriili 
plane, filing, scraping, boring with hrad-aiul. 



' In American shops it is customary to place tlie gauge in 
the left liand and push it forwards. The Swedes use either 
hand, and they ])ull the gauge toward tlie body, or i»ush it 
away from it, as happens to be most convenient under the 
circumstances. 



170 



NAA8 MODEL SERIES 



Model No. XLIII. 
Rake Head of W. B. and Alder or Ash. 

11' 




1 hich /rill. 

Lmrjtfi, ^m in., or fiO cm. Breadth, 1 ,^. in., or 3 r7n. 

\. Saw off a RiiitaMe piece for tlie curved top 
and plane fjice and edge at right angles. Out- 
line diagram as in drawing {((). 

2. Saw ont with frame saw, and finish 1o the 
lines with smoothing-plane, spokeshave, chisel, 
and file. 

3. Saw from Mock a suitahle piece of alder or 
ash for the handle. Plants face and vih^i' at right 
a miles. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 171 

4. Outline diagram with try-square and com- 
pass, and shape with try-phine, center-bit, rip 
saw, knife, and file. 

5. Taper with jack and try-plane. 

6. Outline position of the mortises in the top 
piece in which the handle is to be fitted with 
try-square, bevel, and mortise gauge, and make 
tlui mortises with firmer-chisel and mallet. Fit 
the parts together with chisel. 

7. Measure the length of the handle, and saw 
off with tenon saAV. 

8. Draw a center line on one side of the top 
piece, and mark out the position of the holes 
for the teeth with compass. Bore holes with a 
suitable pin-bit.^ 

9. Gauge the thickness and plane down with 
try-plane. 

10. Smooth entire model with fde and scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, convex sawing, face j)km- 
ing, smoothing up, squaring, smoothing with spoke- 
shave, perpeiidicular chiseling, oblique saiving, oblique 
j)laning, boring with center-bit, long cut, gauging, 
mortising [common and oblique,) bevel cut, concave 
cut, cross cut, boring wWi sluU-hit, filing, scraping. 

^ In order to m:iko the opcnin,(>:s jierfeetly suiooth, it is best 
to bore with pin-bit from oppt)site sides. 



172 



naas model series 



Model No. XLIV. 
Picture Frame of W. B. 



H 



..^ 



±__i^ 



Lenr/th, 12Jg i/i , o?' 33 rm. 



-Hi's- 



1 inch 1 cm. 



^— irc- 



m 



^iiV 



-^L, 



Breadth, 11 in., or 28 rm. 



1. Saw out tlie several parts with rip and eross- 
eut saw. Plane face and edge of each at right 
angles. Gauge l)readth and thickness and plane 
down. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 173 

2. Measure the length of the pieces intended 
for the four sides. Saw off at right angles with 
tenon saw. Smooth the ends in shooting-board 
with try-plane. 

3. Mark out the position of the half-lap joints 
Avith try-square, marking awl, and gauge, and 
make same with tenon saw and chisel (halving 
with saw and chisel). 

4. Fit the parts and glue together. 

5. Smooth on outside and inside surfaces with 
smoothing-plane. 

6. The rabbet on the rear side in which the 
l)icture back is to be fitted is made with mark- 
ing gauge, chisel, and knife. 

7. Mark out the position of the graving with 
compass, try-sc^uare, and gauge. Make same with 
V-tool or knife. 

8. Make the hanger with smoothing-plane, 
center-l)it, and chisel. Make a groove for same 
with tenon saw and chisel. Glue in. 

9. The small square pyramids which ornament 
the outer surface of the frame are made in one 
piece with try-plane. Saw off to required length 
with tenon saw. Smooth ends in shooting-board 
and shape with chisel. Glue down. 

10. Smooth the ends of the piece intended for 
the picture back in shooting-board witli try-plane. 



174 NAAS MODEL SERIES 

Fit into the rabbet. Smooth entire model with 
scraper. 

Exercises. — /Sawing off, long scming , face planing , 
edge 2^laning, squaring, gauging, pla7iing in shoot- 
ing-board, halving vnth saw and chisel, gluing, 
smootJiing ujJ, rabbeting, plain jointing, fixing with 
wooden 2'>€gs, oblique cJdseling, graving with V-tool, bor- 
ing with center-bit, cross sawing with tenon saw, perpen- 
dicular chiseling, cross cut, bevel cut, filing, scraping. 

Model No. XLV. 
Tool Rack of W. W. 



o 
o 



O 



<^ 




o 
o 

O 
o 
o 





t 



bv 



-ll^ 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



175 



Geometrical Construction. 




Length, 31 J J in., or 55 cm. 



Breadth, 11 in., or 28 cm. 



1. Saw out all the parts with y\\) and cross-cut 
saw. Mark off the .required breadth, gauge the 
required thickness of each, and plane down with 
jack and try-plane. Measure the length of each, 
and saw off at right angles with tenon saw. 

2. The ends of the pieces that are to be dove- 



17C NAAS MODEL SERIES 

tailed are siiiootlied in shooting-board with try- 
plane. 

3. Make dovetailing as in Model No, XXXI. 
(half blind dovetail as indicated by drawing). 

4. Outline diagram of the back with try-square, 
compass, meter measure or rule, and gauge, and 
finish to the lines with frame compass saw, center- 
bit, smoothing-plane, knife, and file. Smooth 
the ends of the bottom in shooting-board. 

5. Glue the several parts together. 

G. Outline diagram of the front of the box 
with try-square, compass, and gauge. Bring out 
the form with compass, knife, and file. Fit 
together the sides of the box with tenon saw, 
chisel, and file. Nail down. 

7. Smooth all outer surfaces with smoothing- 
plane. Outline diagram of the brackets — two as 
in geometrical construction No. 2 (/), two as in 
geometrical construction No. 2 {<j) — and make 
same with frame compass saw, chisel, knife, and 
file. Glue these to the Ijack. Nail fast. 

8. Plane the ends of the shelves of the brack- 
ets in shooting-board. 

9. Mark out the i)osition of the holes in the 
shelves as in drawings 1 {a) and 1 {h) with com- 
pass and try-s(|uare. ]\hUs:e openings with center- 
bit and chisel. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



177 



10. rruvide a suitable piece of sufficient length 
for the two partitions in the box. Pre})are in the 
usual manner, and glue in position in the box 
as indicated by the dotted lines of the drawing. 

11. Smooth entire model with scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, long sawing, face i)lan- 
ing, edge planing, plain jointing, squaring, gluing, 
gauging, planing in shooting-hoard, common dove- 
tailing, boring with center-hit, convex sawing, obstacle 
planing, concave cut, convex cut, cross cut, long cut, 
filing, half-lap dovetailing, nailing, ohliqae pAaning, 
perpoidiciLlar chiseling, modeling luith plane, punch- 
ing nails, smoothing up, scraping. 



Model No. XLVI. 
Dough Trough of W. W. 

-5 > 




1 inch 



Length, 15 in., or3S cm. 



Breadth, Oj'g in., or23cm. 

1. Saw out all the parts with rip and cross-cut 
saw. Plane face and edge at right angles with jack 



178 NAAS MODEL SERIES 

and try-plaiio. Gauge bruadth and thickness and 
})lane down. Measure the lengJi of the fcnir 
sides with rule, and mark out the. angle of 
the inclination of their ends with Ijevel and 
try-square. Saw to the lines with tenon saw. 
Smooth the ends in shooting-board with smooth- 
ing-plane. Smooth the inner surfaces of the four 
sides with smoothing-plane. Glue the parts 
together. Smooth the outer surfaces with smooth- 
ing-plane. 

2. (Jutline the grooves for the handles to ilt 
in with try-scpiare, bevel, and marking gauge, 
and make same with knife and chisel. Make 
each handle in three se})arate pieces with tenon 
saw, smoothing-plane, chisel, knife, and file. Fit 
the three pieces togetlier by means of an open 
mortise and tenon joint. Glue the two side 
pieces of each handle in position in the box, then 
glue the cross pieces fast, and finish the corners 
with knife and file. 

o. Measure the length of the bottom piece. 
Saw off at right angles with tenon saw. Smooth 
the ends in shootinoi-board. 

4. Round the edges and ends of the bottom 
with smooth ing-])lane and lile. 

5. Nail down the ])()ttom. l)riv(' nails below 
the surface Avith iiail-sct. 



FUN DA MKNTA L SERIES 



1T9 



G. Smooth tlio bottom with smoothing-plane 
and thu entire model with scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, long sawing, face 2)laning^ 
edge i^/aMWi,^, squaring, gauging, oblique saiuing, 
oblique planing, double oblique dovetailing, smoothing 
up, gluing, plain jointing, oblique notching, fixing 
with wooden pegs, convex ad, long cut, filing, model- 
ing with plane, 'nailing, puncJiing in nails, scraping. 

Model No. XLVII. 
Book Stand of W. W. 




*\?t, 




12 



1. 



180 



NAAS MODEL SERIES 



Geometrical Coustruction. 



r-Mf- 



Geomcliicul CmiBtruction. 
< 5 A ^ 



rI-» 



ri-ri;;- 



i iiic/t t cm. 

3. 



-5i^; ~ 

1 inch 1 cm. 

2. 
Length J 'iOf^ hi., or 52 cm. 



Breadth, 17};-; in., oiihcm. 



1. Saw out the several parts with rip and cross- 
cut saw. Phme face and edge of each at right 
angles. Measure the breadth, gauge the thick- 
ness, and plane down. 

2. Nail together the two pieces intended for 
the sides. 

'1 Outline diagram on opposite surfaces with 
try-square, coni[)ass, and meter measure. Shape 
with compass saw, chisel, spokeshave, knife, file, 
and scraper. Separate the two piec^es. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 181 

4. The grooves in which the shelves are to be 
fitted are outlined on the inner surfaces with 
compass, try-square, bevel, aiid marking gauge. 
Make the groove with knife, tenon saw, and 
chisel. Measure the length of the shelves, and 
saw off at right angles with tenon saw. Smooth 
the ends in shooting-board. 

5. Round the front edges of the shelves with 
smoothing-plane. 

(). Fit the shelves into the grooves with chisel. 
Glue fast. Smootli all the surfaces with sniootli- 
ing-plane, file,^ and scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, long sawing, face plan- 
ing, edge planing, squaring, gauging, planing in 
sliooting -hoard, convex sawing, perpendicular chisel- 
ing, smoothing with spoheshave, conca.ve cut, convex 
cut, cross cut, filing, scraping, half-concealed edge 
grooving, smootldng up, inodellng witli plane, gluing. 



' The proper use of tlie file in the 81oy<:l work is very diffi- 
cult to master. Tlie file should he i)ushed from the hody, 
never pulled towards it. It is likewise necessary to guard 
against allowing- the file to roll or wahhle, as the surface 
Avorked upon will l)ecome true only when the file is grasped 
firmly hy the handle, and pushed forward with a raj^id, steady 
stroke. It should then be lifted from the wood and placed in 
its original position. Be careful not to press too heavily upon 
the wood, as the teeth of the file will then become dull very 
rapidly. The grooves between the cutting edges should be 
cleaned from time to time. 



182 



NAAS MODEL SERIES 



Model No. XLVIII. 
Hooped Bucket of W. W. 




Heii///t, 7\i in., or 20 cm. 



Diameter, Si% in., or 21 cm. 



1. Saw out all the parts with rip and cross- 
cut saw. Plane face, edge, and ends of each 
stave at right angles with jack and try-plane. 

2, Draw on both ends of each stave a curved 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 183 

line, which is to guide in the planing down, in 
order to produce the inner concave surface of 
each stave. Form the concave surface with jack 
and round-plane. 

3. Gauge the thickness of each stave along 
the edges. Draw on both ends the curved line 
to guide for making the convex surface. Finish 
to the lines with hand ax, jack, and smoothing- 
plane. 

4. Outline diagram of the bottom as in draw- 
ing 1 (/>) with compass. Gauge the thickness 
and plane down. Bring out the form with frame 
compass saw and spokeshave. 

5. The inclination of edges of the staves is 
marked out with bevel and marking gauge, and 
made with smoothing-plane. 

6. Outline diagram of the grooves V)y means of 
marking awl, bevel, and gauge, on the inner sur- 
face of each stave, in which the bottom is after- 
ward to be fitted, making- the breadth of the 
grooves equal to the thickness of the bottom 
piece. Cut the grooves Avith knife and chisel. 

7. With try-square and gauge mark out the 
position of the holes in which the little wooden 
pegs that hold the staves together are to ha fitted. 
Bore the holes with brad-awl. 

8. Fit the staves together and set the bottom 



184 NAA8 MODEL SERIES 

into the grooves. Smooth the outer surface of 
the staves with smoothing-phxne. 

9. The iron bands which encircle the staves are 
now made fast. 

10. Mark out tlie required lengtli between the 
l)ottom piece and the lower end of the staves by 
means of the compass. Saw off with tenon saw. 
Smooth the ends with smoothing-plane and 
spokeshave. 

11. The height is also to be measured from 
the bottom piece, and sawed off with tenon saw 
Smooth the upper ends with smoothing-plane 
and spokeshave. 

12. Outline diagram of lower ends as in draw- 
ing 1 {<t\ using the compass, and bring out the 
form with frame compass saw, knife, and file. 

13. Smooth the inner surfaces of the entire 
model with spoon-iron or spoon-gouge, file, and 
scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawivg off, ohliquc mwiiig, oblique 
jdaning, half-concealed edge grooving, gauging, 
chopjnng, raodeling with plane, fare plan'} iig, circular 
sawing, oblique cut, smoothing with spokeshave, fixing 
of bucket bottom, boring luifh brad-airl, hooping, con- 
vex sawing, concave cat, bevel cut, end pkinhng, filing, 
scraping. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 



185 



Model No. LXIX. 
Cabinet of W. W. 



-rr 



,_ ^i.j,3, 



i^^i^t 



"i 









-ICtV 



Lenqth, 26 jw., rir 6(1 cw. 



_5 10 1 inch 1cm. 
h 




Breadth, 15; J j«., or 39.8 cw. 



1. Saw out all the parts with rip and cross-cut 
saw. 

2. Plane face and edge at right angles of the 
pieces intended for the stiles and rails of the 
door, and of those for the cornice and base of 
the cabinet. Gauge breadth and thickness of 
each of these and plane them down. Outline 
diagram of the three parts of the cornice and 
the three of the base, and bring out the form, 
using jack and try-plane. 



18G NAAS MODEL SERIES 

3. Plane face and edge at right angles of the 
pieces for the sides, the top, back, and bottom ol 
the cabinet, and the panel of the door. Meas- 
ure l)readth ^ and gauge thickness of each, and 
plane down with jack and try-plane. 

4. The parts that are to ho joined together — 
viz., the two sides and the top and bottom piece 
— must be sawed off to their required lengths, and 
their ends smoothed in shooting-board. The 
dovetailing is made as in model No. XXXI. 

5. Smooth the edges of the two sides with 
try-plane. 

0. The rabbet in the sides in which the back is 
to 1)0 fitted is marked out with marking-gauge 
and made with knife and chisel. 

7. Glue the dovetailing parts together. 

8. Saw off the back to its requircMl length 
and fit it into the groove with smoothing- 
l)lane. Nail the l)ack tightly in position. 

9. Smooth all the outer surfaces with smooth- 
ing-plane. 

10. Fit together the j)nrts for tlie cornice and 
base witli try -square, bevel, an<l smoothing- 
plane. Miter them on the corners an<l nail 
tog(!ther. 

' The Urcadtli of tlie to]^ and l)ottom is to ])p mndo 0(|nnl to 
the breadth ol" the sides, ininiis tlic t-liiekness of tlie l)a(;k. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 187 

11. Tlie lengtli of tlie stiles and rails is meas- 
ured with rule and try-square, and sawed off at 
right angles witli tenon saw. The ends are 
smoothed in shooting-board. 

12. Outline diagram of the through mortise 
and tenon ^ with relish in the stiles and rails, 
with try-square and gauge. Make same as in 
Model No. XLII. with firmer-chisel, tenon saw, 
and small chisel. 

13. Fit the stiles and rails together with chisel. 
Smooth the outer edges of the stiles j and rails 
with try-plane. 

14. The grooves in the stiles and rails in which 
the panel of the door is to be fitted are laid out with 
mortise gauge, and made with knife and chisel. 

15. Fit the panel of the door into the grooves 
with try and smoothing-plane. Glue the panel 
in })Osition. Smooth all surfaces of the door 
witli smoothing-plane. 

16. Fix the hinges and lock with try-square, 
gauge, pin-bit or drill, chisel, knife, brad-awl, and 
screw-driver. 

17. Smooth the top and l)ottom with smooth- 
ing-plane, and the entire model with scrajKa*. 



' Blind mortises and tonons may lio nsod in tho construc- 
tion of the door, as the edp;es will tliei\ ])resent a neuter 
api)earance, the ends of tlie tenons l)eing concealed. 



188 



NAAS MODEL SERIES 



Exercises. — Sawing off, vertical long sawing (foot- 
sawing), face planiiigj 2)lain jointing, gluing, edge- 
jjlaning, squaring, gauging, end-planing, half-lap 
dovetailing, grooving luith knife and chisel, nailing, 
beveling with oblique position, mitering, punching 
nails, smoothing up, inortising, fijing h nges, fixing 
lock, scraping. 



Model No. L. 
Table of W. W. 




Udqht, SO,!), ?■«., or 70.5 cm. 



lireadth, 13,",. in., m- 34 em. 



FUNDAMENTAL SERIES 189 

1. Saw out tlie several parts with rij) and cross- 
cut saw. 

2. Plane the face and edge of each of the four 
pieces intended for the legs at right angles. 
Gauge the thickness of each and plane down. 

3. Plane the face and edge of each of the four 
upper side pieces, or upper rails, and of each of 
the four lower rails at right angles. Gauge 
breadth and thickness and plane down. 

4. Lay out the tenons as indicated in drawing 
(a) for the blind mortise-joints with try-square 
and gauge. Make the tenons with tenon saw and 
chisel. 

5. Screw the four legs into the vise of the 
bench. Lay out the position of the mortises as 
in drawing (a) with try-square and gauge, and 
make same with firmer-chisel and mallet. Meas- 
ure the length of the legs and saw off. 

(j. Construct outline of the legs as in drawing 
with try-square, compass, and gauge. Bring out 
the form witli jack and try-plane, making the 
bevel or chamfer with chisel and file. 

7. Fit the tenons of the rails into the mor- 
tises of the legs, making a blind mortise-joint, 
with chisel. 

8. The grooves in which the eight small mortise 
blocks that strengthen the table-top are to be 



190 NAAS MODEL fiPJRTES 

fitted, are marked out on the inside of tlie four 
upper rails with compass, try-s(|uare, and gauge, 
and are made with chisel. 

9. Glue the rails and legs together. 

10. Saw off the upper ends of the legs at right 
angles and at a level with the upper rails. Smooth 
the u})i)er edges of tlie upper rails and the up})er 
ends of the legs with smoothing-plane. 

11. Smooth all outer surfaces with smoothing- 
plane. 

12. Plane the face and edge of the pieces in- 
tended for the table-to|) and the shelf at right 
angles. Measure the breadth, gauge the tliick- 
ness, and plane down. 

13. Fit the shelf in position, using the try- 
square, gauge, tenon saw, and chisel. 

14. The blocks that are to strengthen the shelf 
are i)laned in one length. Gauge breadth and 
thickness and plane down. Mark out the length 
of each with compass, and saw off with tenon 
saw. Smooth with chisel. 

15. The shelf is held fast to the lower rails 
with clamps or hand-screws, and the twelve small 
blocks are glued down on the inside. 

in. T,ay out diagram of the table-top as in draw- 
ing {(■) with try-square and compass, and make 
same with chisel, smoothing-plane, and ii\i\ 



TOWJV ELEMENTARY SERIES 191 

17. Plane faco and edge of the eight mortise- 
blocks that strengthen the table-top at right 
angles in one length. Measure the length of each 
with compass, then saw off, and shape with 
chisel. Fit the mortise blocks into the grooves. 
The table-top is held fast to the upper rails with 
clamps or hand screws, and the mortise blocks are 
glued into the grooves (the glue being placed 
only upon the upper surface of each block). 

18. Smooth the edges of the top and shelf 
with smoothing-plane and file. 

19. Smooth entire model with scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, vertical long sawiiuj 
{foot mwing) , face-planing , squaring, gauging, edge- 
'planing, Jiauiiched tenon {concealed mortising^, 
oJ)lique planing, cliamjering with chisel, fHhig, 
smoothing up, gluing, plain-jointing, gluing with 
use of clamps, hloching {gluing with hlochs) , perpen- 
dicular chiseling, end pAaning, mortice hloching, 
scraping. 

II. TOWN ELEMENTARY SERIES.' 

Model No. I. (a). Kindergarten Pointer. {ScG pagC \^Z^ 
Model No.I.(b). Kindergarten Pointer. {ScC pagC 104.) 

' Many of tlic models in the Town Elementary >Series are 
made in tlie same way as the corresponding models in the 



193 JVAAS MODEL SERIES 

Model No. II. 
Parcel Pin of W. B. 



1 inch ■' cm. 

Length, 2{l in., or 7 cm. Thickness, y*s in., or 1 cm. 

1. A suitable piece of wood is cut four-sided so 
that it will have the form of a square in cross 
section. 

2. Measure the length and cut off. 

o. Chamfer as shown in drawing. (Jut the 
notches. (The entire work is to be done with 
the knife.) 

Exercises. — Long cut, cross cut, bevel cut. 

Model No. III. Round Flower stick. [ScC pCKJC 105.) 

Model No. IV. Penholder. {^ScC pCigC 106.) 

Model No. V. Rectangular Flower Stick. {^ScC pdQC 

107.) 

Model No. VI. Slate-pencil Holder. [ScC page 108.) 
Model No. Vll. Key Label. [ScC jXigC \00.) 
Model No. Vlll. Thread Winder. i^ScC 'pagC llO.) 

Fundamental Series, and many of those in the Iliph Sehool 
Series are made like those in either the Fundamental or the 
Town Series. In such (uises a reference to tlie paije on wliieh 
the mo(U'l has already been described is sullieient. 



2'OWN ELEMENTARY SERIES 193 

Model No. IX. 
Bar of W. W. (used by the Wood-Carriers). 



Am- 



1 inch 1 cm, 
Len/fth, 13ig In., or 3b cm. Diarmter. 1 in., or 2.5 cm. 

1. Saw from block a suitable piece of wood with 
ri[) and cross-cut saws. 

2. Plane ftice and edge at right angles. Gauge 
breadth and thickness, and plane down with 
jack and try-planes. 

3. Draw diagonals on both ends. With the 
intersection points as centers, describe circumfer- 
ences within the squares. 

4. Make the object octagonal, then sixteen-sided 
with try-plane. 

5. Round with smoothing-plane. 

6. Measure the length and saw off with tenon 
saw. 

7. Round the ends with knife, and smooth 
entire model with file. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, long Sdiving, edge planing, 
squaring, gauging, bevel planing, modeling luith 
plane, convex eat, cross-cut, filing. 



194 



JVAAS MODEL SERIES 



Model No. X. 
Pen Rest of W. B. 

Q 9 
Otti * 



ruT 



1 r 



tinch 



Lenglh, 3^^ lu.^ nr 9 cut. 



Brtadlh, \% in.., or 2 cm. 



1. Saw from block us buforu. Cut to approxi- 
iiiatu tliicknoss with hand ax. 

2. Plane facu and odgu at right angles. Gauge 
breadth and thickness and plane down. 

3. Measure the length and the position of the 
recesses with compass. Saw off the length with 
tenon saw. Cut the recesses with tenon saw 
and knife. 

4. On each end construct a semicircle with a 
radius equal to half the thickness. Round the 
upper surface with these semi-circumferences as 
guiding lines, using smoothing-plane for the pur- 
pose. Smooth the ends with knife and the entire 
model with file. 

Exercises. — Smving off, cho^^iying, edge planing, 
squaring, gauging, cross-sawing tuith tcu,on saw, long 
cut, cross cut, modcli'tuj with plane, filing. 



Model No. XI. Paper-Cutter. [ScC puge 114.) 



TOWN ELEMENTARY SERIES li>5 

















Model No. XII. 
















Strop Stick of W. B. 






1 

t 




o \a 


,f 












\m 




















'' 


















lA 


c. 














V 


5^ 






t inch 1 cm. 










■^1 










I, 15 


1? 


in. 


,07 


40 


cm 






Bfeadth, 


lis in., or icm 



1. Saw from block as before. 

2. Plane face and edge at right angles. Gauge 
breadth and thickness and plane down, 

3. Construct outline on both edges as in draw- 
ing {b) with try-square and gauge. Bring out the 
form with rip saw, smoothing-plane (obstacle plan- 
ing), and chisel. 

4. Saw off the length of the handle with tenon 
saw. Smooth this end with chisel. Measure the 
entire length and saw off. Round the upper end 
with tenon saw and chisel. 

5. Bore the hole with center-bit, working from 
opposite sides. Smooth with file and scraper. 

Exercises. — Salving off, long sawing, face planing, 
edge planing, squaring, gauging, obstacle planing, 
perpendicular chiseling, boring with center -bit, filing, 
scraping. 

13 



iO(J 



KAAS MODEL SERIES 



Model No. XIII. Small Bowl. {^ScC iJiKJC I'll .) 
Model No. XIV. Hammer Handle. {ScC pMJC llU.) 
Model No. XV. Spoon. {8eG pa(JG 120.) 
Model No. XVI. Chopping Board. [See JKl'JC 122.) 
Model No. XVII. Flower-pot Cross. (^/S'ctJ j^rt^tJ 123.) 

Model No. XVIII. 
Meter Measure of W. B. 



z: 



>l c 



:7z: 



irMt^ * 



aZDt-6 



Len(//h,25i'si»;Or6ic»i. Breadth, \ in., or 2.^ cm. 

1. Saw from Ijlock a suitable piece of wood 
as l)efore. 

2. Plane face and edge at right angles. Gauge 
breadth and thickness and i)lane down. 

3. Draw outline of the rule as in drawing (a) 
with try-square and gauge, and make with rip 
saw, smoothing-plane, and spokeshave. 

4. Taper Avith try-plane. 

5. Draw outline of the handle. Saw out with 
compass saw and shape with knife. Chamfer 
with knife. 

6. Measure length, and saw olF at right angles 
with tenon saw. 

7. Smooth entii-e model with file and scraper. 



TOWN ELEMENTARY SERIES 



197 



Exercises. — Sawing off, long scvwlng, face 'plan- 
ing^ edge plcudng, squaring, gauging, ohstacle 'plan- 
ing, smoothing with spoheshave, convex sawing, 
concave cut, long cut, convex cut, cross cut, level cut, 
filing, scrapjing. 

Model No. XIX. Scoop. (aScC pagC 125.) 
Model No. XX. Clothes Rack. (aS'cC pagC 127.) 
Model No. XXI. Flower-pot Stand. (^'CC p)a(JC 120.) 
Model No. XXII. Ax Handle. (aS6'(^ pagC 131.) 
Model No. XXIII. Footstool. (iS'ee pagC 132.) 

Model No. XXIV. 
Book Carrier of W. W. and W. B. 




I inch I cm. 



1— 

1 


1 1 1 

j 


1 


II • 


( 1 


• (1 


1 

1 
1 
1 


1 1 


t 

1 



1. 



198 JVA-iS MODEL SERIES 



Geometrical Construction. 




1 inch 1 cm. 

Length, 9^^111., or 'i^ cm, 2. Breadth, b\f. In., or lb cm. 

1. Saw out the two pieces that form the carrier 
as before. Plane face and edge of each at right 
angles. Measure the breadtli and plane down. 

2. Mark out the position of the grooving in 
the top piece with try-square, compass, meter 
measure, marking-awl, bevel, and gauge. Cut the 
groove with tenon saw, chisel, and rabbet plane. 

3. Make the two dovetail tongues with jack 
and try-plane. Fit them into the grooves. 
Gauge the thickness and plane down. 

4. Measure the required length of the parts, 
and saw off with tenon saw. 

5. Nail the parts together. Smooth the ends at 
right angles Avith smoothing-plane. Mark out 
the position of the recesses with try-square and 
compass, and make them with tenon saw, chisel, 
and knife. Separate the parts. 

6. Saw out a suitable piece for the handle. 
Gauge breadth and thickness and jdane down. 
Draw outline as in geometrical construction (2) 



TOWN ELEMENTARY SERIES 199 

with try-square and compass, and bring out the 
form with compass saw, chisel, smoothing-plane, 
knife, file, and scraper. 

7. Bore the holes with pin-bit or drill. Fasten 
the handle with wood-screws, driving the screws 
in at a slight inclination. 

Exercises. — Sawing off , face planing, edge 'plac- 
ing, squaring, dovetail clam/ping, heveling with 
ohlique 'position, ganging^ end planing, cross sawing 
tvith tenon saw, perpendicnlar cliiseling, long cut, 
convex sawing, concave chiseling, cross cut, modeling 
loith plane, fixing loith screws, filing, bevel cnt, 
scraping, boring with shell-bit. 

Model No. XXV. Box. [ScC page 137.) 
Model No. XXVI. Ladle. {ScC page 139.) 
Model No. XXVII. Baker's Shovel. [ScC page 141.) 
Model No. XXVIIl. Clothes-Beater. (^See J^agC 142.) 
Model No. XXIX. Ruler. [ScB page 143.) 
Model No. XXX. Bootjack. [See page 145.) 
Model No. XXXI. Lamp Bracket. [Sce pagC 147.) 
Model No. XXXll. Weaving Shuttle. (ScC pagC 150.) 
Model No. XXXIII. Knife Box. [ScC page 151.) 
Model No. XXXIV. American Ax Handle. {^ScC _2X/^e 
154.) 

Model No. XXXV. Match Box. (See page 155.) 
Model No. XXXVI. Baseball Bat. [ScC pagC 157.) 



200 



JfAAS MODEL SERIES 



Model No. XXXVII. 
Triangle of W. B. 

7|j 




liiich 1 cm. 

Length, 7{^ in., nr 20 cm. Breadth,m in., or 10 cm. 

1. Saw from l)lock a suitable piece of wood, as 
in previous exercises. 

2. Plane face and edge at right angles with 
try-plane. Gauge the thickness and saw off with 
rip saw. 

8. Plane to required thickness as in Model No. 
XXIX., page 144, adjusting the wood upon a 
foundation piece. 

4. Chamfer witli try-plane. 

5. Smooth the one end in shooting-board Avith 
try-plane. 

6. Lay out diagram as in drawing with meter 
measure, try-square, marking awl, and bring out 
the form witli tenon saw and smoothing-plane. 

7. Divisions are laid out witli tlie aid of com- 
j)ass, and scratclicd on tlie clmmfer with try- 
srpiarii and marking awl. Smooth with scraper. 



BlOn SCHOOL SERIES 201 

Exercises. — Sawing off, long sawing, face plan- 
ing, edge planing, squaring, gauging, fixing loith 
wooden pegs {for planing thin wood) , planing wiili 
compass plane, heveUng with ohlique position, plan- 
ing in sliooting-board, boring with center-hit, ohlique 
sawing, ohlique planing , setting out, scraping. 

Model No. XXXVIII. Pen Box. {Sce page 159.) 
Model No. XXXIX. Stool. [^^CC page 160.) 
Model No. XL. Try-square. {SeC J)agG 163.) 
Model No. XLI. Plate Rack. {ScG page 165.) 
Model No. XLI I. Marking Gauge. {See page 168.) 
Model No. XLIII. Rake Head. {ScC page 170.) 
Model No. XLIV. Picture Frame. {ScC p>agG 172.) 
Model No. XLV. Tool Rack. {See JXige 174.) 
Model No. XLVI. Dough Trough. {Sce JXtgC 177.) 
Model No. XLVII. Book Stand. {See page 179.) 
Model No. XLVIII. Hooped Bucket. {See page 182.) 
Model No. XLIX. Cabinet. {See page 185.) 
Model No. L. Table. {See pKige 188.) 

MI. HIGH SCHOOL SERIES. 

Model No. I. (a). Kindergarten Pointer. {Seepage 103.) 
Model No. l.(b). Kindergarten Pointer. (Seepage 104.) 
Model No. II. Parcel Pin. {See page 192.) 
Model No. III. Round Flower Stick. {See page 105.) 



202 JVAAS MODEL SEUIES 

Model No. IV. 
Letter Opener of W. B. 



-C,\:- 



z© 



Length, 6J5 in., or 17.1 cm. Breadth, f,. in., or 1 cm. 

1. Select a suitable piece of wood. Cut to 
required breadth and thickness. 

2. Construct outline as in drawing, and shape 
with knife, making it first octagonal, then six- 
teen-sided, and then round. 

3. Measure the length and cut off. 

4. Round tlio ends. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, lonrj cut, crof^fi cut, convex 
cut. 

Model No, V. Rectangular Flower Stick. {^ScC page 

107.) 

Model No. VI. Charcoal and Pencil Holder of W. W. (*Se6 

page lOS.) 

Model No. VII. Key Label, (a'^^^ jmgC 100.) 

Model No. Vm. Pack-thread Winder. [ScC pagC 110.) 

Model No. IX. Bar. (See page 103.) 

Model No. X. Pen Rest. [ScC JKigC 194.) 



BTGH SCHOOL SERIES 



303 



Model No. XI. Paper-cutter. {ScC page 114.) 
Model No. XII. Strop Stick. (^Sce pCigG 195.) 
Model No. XIII. Small Bowl. [See page 117.) 
Model No. XIV. Hammer Handle. [See page 119.) 



Model No. XV. 
Pen Tray of W. B. 



! ■ 

4 i 

i 

-£ U 



h !\ 



Lenfjth, 9}^ in., or 25 cm. 



J inch 1 em. 



Breadth, 2}f in., or 7 ctn. 



1. Saw off from block a suitable piece of wood. 
Plane face and edge at right angles. Gauge 
breadth and plane down. 

2. Lay out the position of the hollow as in 
drawing (a) with try-square, compass, meter 
measure or rule, and gauge. Make the hol- 
low with gouge, mallet, spoon-iron,^ or spoon- 

' The spoon-iron is rarely, if ever, used in American cnr- 
penter shops. It is similar in appearance to our spoon ,e;ou,t>e, 
Init it is very much more convenient for deep concave 
surfaces. 



204 NAAR MODEL SERIES 

gouge, and smooth with scraper and sand- 
paper.^ 

3. Gauge the thickness, and plane down with 
try -plane. 

4. Measure the length, and saw off at right 
angles with tenon saw. 

5. Lay out the form of the ends with compass, 
and shape with chisel and smoothing-plane. 
Smooth with file. 

G. Smooth the outer surfaces of the entire 
model with smoothing-plane and scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, long sawing, face planing, 
edge jdaidng, squaring, gauging, gouging with 
gouge and with spoon-iron, scraping, perpendicular 
chiseling, filing, modeling luith jj/(/7^e, smoothing 
up. 

Model No. XVI. Chopping Board. {^Seepage 122.) 
Model No. XVH. Flower-pot Cross. i^Sce JMigC 123.) 
Model No. XVI 11. Meter Measure. [HcC pxtgC IDG.) 

Model No. XIX. Scoop. [See page 125.) 

Model No. XX. Clothes Rack. [ScC P>age 127.) 
Model No. XXI. Flower-pot Stand. {Seejmge 12*.).) 



'After nibbin.ti: lliis liollow surface with sniid-paper, a 
])ieee of rork should Ite used to reuiove any slight rough- 
ness. • 



HIGH SCHOOL SERIES 



205 



Model No. XXII. 
Flower-press Roller and Rests of W. B. 



] 



I 



-i-iV 




1. 



Geometrical Construction. 




Length, 15 in., or 38 cm. 



ThicknenK, 2i% in., or&cm. 



1. Saw out a suitable j^ieeo for tlie roller. 
Plane face and edge at right angles. Gauge the 



200 NAAS MODEL SERIES 

thickness, and plane down with try-plane. Meas- 
ure the length and saw off at right angles. 

2. Lay out the position of the holes with try- 
square, compass, and gauge. Bore the holes from 
l)oth sides with center-bit. 

3. Construct on each end a circumference with- 
in the square. Make tlie piece first octagonal, 
then sixteen-sided, and tlien cylindrical, Avith jack 
and try-plane. 

4. Smootli with file and scraper. 

5. Saw out the pieces for the two rests in one 
length. 

0. Gauge breadth and thickness of each and 
plane down. 

7. Lay out outline as in geometrical construc- 
tion (2) with try-square and compass. 

8. Shape with compass saw, gouge, chisel, and 
file. 

9. The inclination of the upper edges is 
marked out witli compass and meter measure 
or rule, and is planed down with try-plane. 
Lay out position of the holes for the screws. 
Bore them with suitable bit or drill. 

10. Smooth the entire model with scraper. 

Exercises. — Saiving off, long sawing, face planing, 
8(piaring, gauging, horing with center-hit, bevel 2>l<(ii- 



HIOH SCHOOL SERIES 



20? 



ing, modeling with ijlanc, perj:)e7icHc^t/ar chisding, 
filing, scraping, boring luith shell-bit, edge 'planing, 
convex sawing, perpendicular gouging, oblkpie plan- 
ing. 

Model No. XXMI. Footstool. [Sce page 132.) 
Model No. XXIV. Book Carrier. {^Sce page 197.) 
Model No. XXV. Box. [ScC page 137.) 

Model No. XXVI. Ladle. [See page 139.) 

Model No. XXVll. 
Flower-press of W. W. 



Jf'.T- 



1 J 



]..4- 



U_J 



^li'e* 



-15ii- 



*r'2^(r> 



'linch ( \ Icvi. 

A --' y. 



^m^ 



1. 



208 



NAAS MODEL SERIES 



Length, \"\l i»., or 45.1 cm. 



+l"la 




Breadth, 9|J in., or 25 J cm. 



1. Saw out the two parts for the top and 
bottom pieces. 

2. Plane face and edge of each at right angles. 
Measure the breadth of each and plane down. 

3. Lay out the position of the grooves by 
means of compass, try-square, meter measure or 
rule, marking awl, and bevel. Remove so as to 
make the grooves with knife, tenon saw, chisel, 
and rabbet-plane or router-plane. 

4. The dovetail tongue is made with jack and 
try-plane and fitted into the groove. 

5. Lay out diagram of the form, and saw out 
with frame compass saw. Gauge tlie thickness, 
and ])lane down with jack and try-plane. 

0. Smooth the ends with spokeshave and file. 
7. Tlie inclination of the lower side of the 



HIGH SCHOOL SERIES 309 

bottom piece is marked out with compass, try- 
square, and gauge, and planed down with try- 
plane and smoothing-plane. 

8. Smooth entire model with smoothing-plane 
and scraper. 

Exercises. — Smuing off, chopimig, face planing, 
2)lain jointing, gluing, squaring, dovetail clamping, 
convex sawing, gauging, smoothing with spokeshave, 
square planing, wedge planing, smoothing up, scrap- 
ing, modeling ivith draiu-knife. 

Model No. XXVIII. 
Coat Stretcher of W. B. 



W^ " 1 



-\5\l- 




Length, 15j§ in., or 40 cm. Breadth, \f^ in., or 3.5cm. 

1. Saw out a suitable piece of wood. Plane 

face and edo;e at right angles. Gauge thickness 
and plane down. 



210 NAAS MODEL SERIES 

2. Lay out outline on opposite edges as in 
drawing (6). Saw out with frame compass saw. 
Plane down convex surface with smoothing-plane 
and concave surface with compass or circular 
plane. 

3. Measure the length and saw off. Round 
the ends with knife. 

4. Mark out the position of the holes and bore 
witli center-bit and pin-bit, boring from below 
with center-bit, and from the top with pin-bit, 
as indicated in drawing (b). 

5. Round the edges with spokeshave, and 
smooth with file and scraper. 

6. Fasten the iron hook in position, having 
previously made a tenon with chisel. Fit this 
tenon into the hole and glue fast. 

7. Smooth entire model with scraper. 

Exercises. — Sauring off, long sawing , face planing , 
edge planing, squaring, gauging, convex saiuing, 
2)laning with compass jjlane, smoothing up, cross cut, 
convex cut, boring with ceiiter-bit, boring with shell- 
bit, modeling luith spokeshave, filing , scraping, sink- 
ing iron pdates. 

Model No. XXIX. Ruler. (iSVc pagC 143.) 
Model No. XXX. Bootjack. (aSc'C page 145.) 



HIGH SCHOOL SERIES 



211 



Model No. XXXI. Lamp Bracket. [ScC ptigC 147.) 
Model No. XXXII. Weaving Shuttle. [See ])age 150.) 
Model No. XXXIII. Knife Box. [Sce JjaiJC 151.) 
Mode! No. XXXIV. Ax Handle (American). [See iJaQG 
154.) 

Model No. XXXV. Match Box. [See page 155.) 
Model No. XXXVl. Baseball Bat. [See J)age 157.) 
Model No. XXXVII. Triangle. [See Jjage 200.) 
Model No. XXXVIII. Pen Box. [See page 159.) 

Model No. xxxix. Stool. [See page 100.) 

Model No. XL. Try-square. [See pjage 163.) 

Model No. XLI. 
Drawing Board with Frame of W. W. 

Board. 

4A> 




-li'is- 



tijtr 






-3f 
LetKjth, I'J^J ill., or 50 cm. 

14 



1 inch 1 cm, 





Breadth, 15 Jg in., or 40 cm. 



212 



NAAS MODEL SE1UE8 

Frame. 



r 



(5>- 



-19] 



"^ 



-<B> 



- Vp "■■ 



J 



pn 



'^ JM 1 ivch 
—^ 1cm. 



Length, 19}J iti., or 50.5 cwi. 



Breadth, ITy'V iw. or 44.5. c;«. 



1. Saw out tlio several parts with rip and 
cross-cut saws. 

2. Plane face and edge of the parts for the 
frame at right angles. Measure the hreadth, 
gauge the thickness, and plane down. Measure 
the length and saw off. Smooth the ends in 
shooting-board. 

3. Dovetail as in Model No. XXXIII. (page 152). 

4. IMane face and edge of the [)arts for the 
board at right angles. Measure breadth, gauge 
thickness, and plane down. JMeasure length and 
saw off at right angles with rip saw. 

5. Lay out the position of the grooves with 



HIOH SCHOOL SERIES 213 

try-square, compass, meter measure or rule, 
marking awl, bevel, and gauge. Remove so as 
to produce the grooves with knife, tenon saw, 
chisel, and rabbet-plane. 

6. The inclination of the sides of the dovetail 
tongue is laid out witli rule and compass, and 
made with jack and try-plane. 

7. Smooth the ends with try-plane and fit into 
the frame. The small support blocks that 
strengthen the corners of the frame are planed in 
one length with try-plane, and sawn off to their 
required length with tenon saw. Smooth the 
ends with chisel and nail down. 

8. The bolts are planed in one length with 
try-plane, and shaped with chisel and knife. 

0. Bore the holes with brad-awl and screw 
the bolts down. Smooth entire model with 
smoothing-plane and scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, long savring, face plan- 
ing, edge j^lnnimg, squaring, gluing, gauging, plan- 
ing in shooting-hoard, dovetailing in thick luood, 
dovetail clamping, end planing, oblique planing, 
smoothing up, mitering, oblique chiseling, boring 
ivith brad-awl, nailing, perpendicular chiseling, 
long cut, fixing with screius, scraping. 

Model No.XLM. Marking Gauge. {ScC JjagC 168.) 



214 



JVAAti MODEL SERIES 



Model No. XLIII. 
Bracket of W. B. 




Gcoinctrical Coiiistruction. 
6i*. 




L ^ j'g 1 



JLeimth, Vo\l in., or 40 cm. 



Breadth, 7\%i>i., or 20 cm. 



BIOH SCHOOL SERIES 315 

1. Saw out the several parts with rip and cross- 
cut saws. 

2. Plane face and edge of the pieces intended 
for the two bracket supports and the piece for 
the body of the shelf at right angles. Gauge 
l)readth and thickness and plane down. 

3. Nail the parts for the supports together. 
Draw outlines as in geometrical construction 2 (d) 
with try-square, compass, and meter measure or 
rule. 

4. Saw off the upper end at right angles with 
rip saw and smooth with smoothing-plane. 
Bring out the form with compass saw, chisel, 
gouge, file, and scraper. 

5. Lay out the position of the two grooves on 
the bottom of the body of the shelf, in which 
the supports are to be fitted with compass, try- 
square, marking awl, bevel, and gauge. (The 
depth of the grooves is marked out with mortise 
gauge.) 

6. Remove, producing the grooves with knife, 
tenon saw, chisel, and ral)bet-plane. 

7. Saw off' the required length of the back and 
the body of the shelf at the same time with tenon 
saw. 

(S. Smooth the ends with smootliing-plane. 
9. Glue the supports into position. 



216 NAA8 MODEL SERIES 

10. Smooth tlie body of tlie slielf with smootli- 
ing-plane. 

11. Saw out the pillars (e) in one lengtli. Bring- 
out their form with plane, chisel, and knife. 

12. The railing (h) of the balustrade is made 
with the try-plane. 

13. The distance between the pillars is marked 
out with compass. The holes in which the 
tenons of the pillars are to fit are bored with 
center-bit. 

14. Nail the l)ack and body together. Fit the 
other parts and glue fast. Smooth all outer sur- 
faces with smoothing-plano. 

15. The carving on the edges is made with 
carving-tools. 

10. Smooth entire model with scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, long sawing, face planing, 
edge 'planing, scpiaring, 2)lai7i jointing, gluing, gaug- 
ing, end planing, convex sawing, perpendicular chisel- 
ing, pcip)endicidar gouging, filirig, scraping, Jadf 
concealed edge grooving, smoothing up, concave cut, 
long cut, hcvcl cat, mortising, setting out, scraping, 
sinking iron plates, boring with center-hit, nailing, 
graving with. V-tool. 

Model No. XLIV. Picture Frame. [SrC page 172.) 
Model No. XLV. Tool Rack. [SfC pOgC 174.) 



HIGH SCHOOL SERIES 



217 



Model No. XLVI. 
Tea Tray of W. W. 

91 '. 




linch 



Letif/th, lajf! »??., or 35 cm. 



Breadfh, O,',- in., or 24 cm. 



1. Saw out the several parts as in previous 
exercises. 

2. Plane face and edge of each at right angles, 
(lauge thickness, measure breadth, and plane 
down. 

3. Lay off the length of the four sides with 
meter measure or rule, determining the angles of 
inclination of the ends by means of level. Saw 
off with tenon saw and smooth the ends with 
smoothing-plane. 

4. The dovetailing is made as in Model No. 
XXX TIL (page 152). 

5. Draw the outline of the ends and l)ring out 
the form witli center-bit, chisel, compass saw, file, 
and knife. 



218 NAAS MODEL SERIES 

6. Glue the sides and ends together. Smooth 
the outer surfaces with smoothing-plane, 

7. Draw the outline of the bottom and shape 
with smoothing-plane and file. 

(S. Nail down the bottom. The upper edges are 
rounded wdth smoothing-[)lane, knife, and file. 
9. Smooth the entire model with scraper. 

Exercises. — Sawing off, long sawing, face planing, 
edge planing, squaring, gauging, plain jointing, glu- 
ing, oblique sawing, oblique planing, double oblique 
dovetailing, boring with center-bit, perpendicular chisel- 
ing, convex sav)ing, long cut, convex cut, concave cut, 
filing, smoothing up, modeling luith plane, boring 
with brad-awl, nailing, punching in nails, scraping. 

Model No. XLVM. Book Stand. [ScC page 179.) 
Model No. XLVIII. Hooped Bucket. (/ScC pogC 182.) 
Model No. XLIX. Cabinet. [ScC page 185.) 
Model No. L. Table. (*SVy' pogc 188.) 



CHAPTER V. 
EVA RODHE'S MODEL SERIES. 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE object of all education is to form the 
character and to strengthen the will power, 
to develop the intellectual fjiculties and the 
ability to work, and to give a healthy physical 
training. As to this aim, all educators are agreed, 
as also to the idea that education is the most 
important factor in the making of the man ; but 
in two other respects there is among educators 
great difference of opinion : first, as to when 
the education should begin ; and, second, as to 
what a correct and rational education should 
comprise. 

I believe that the education of the child 
begins with his consciousness. The foundation 
for the child's character should be laid in the 
earliest years of his life. Even at the age of 
five years, great differences may be noted in 

219 



220 EFA ROD HE S MODEL SERIES 

the characters of diirerent children, differences 
which are the result not only of natural or 
inherited tendencies, but also of the '' bringing 
up." If all parents understood how to educate 
their children in the right way, without exer- 
cising either undue severity or excessive indul- 
gence, if they themselves could serve as worthy 
examples of what they would have their chil- 
dren be and do, then indeed might we expect 
our future generations to display a far nobler 
type of manhood and womanhood. It is the 
province of the school to assist parents in form- 
ing the child's character, to impart information, 
and to cultivate the power " to do," thereby de- 
veloping the mental faculties, and last, but not 
least, to send the child back to the home with 
a strong and healthy l)ody. In order to accom- 
l)lis]i these ends, the school must demand of 
the pupils that they be truthful, obedient, faith- 
ful, diligent, orderly, kind to their comrades, and 
active and willing in their work. How can 
this be best accomplislied ? 

As few rules as possible should be laid down 
for tlie guidance of the pupil. No pedantry 
should exist within the class-room, and any tend- 
encies towards it should l)e discouraged. Tlie 
lessons should be sliorl and of a character calcu- 



INTRODUCTION 221 

lated to arouse tlio interest of the eliild, so tliat 
the work may prove })leasaiit and not irksome. 

When the work is of a healthy character and 
within the child's capability, then only will the 
information imparted be of lasting vakie, and 
then only can the mind be broadened in all its 
phases. The course of instruction must not com- 
prise too many subjects to be taught at once. 
Too many studies tend rather to weaken than to 
strengthen the mind. In order to develop the 
physical powers, book studies and practical work 
must be combined in all the school exercises. 
If the child spends seven hours a day at school, 
at least two of these seven hours should be devoted 
to physical work. 

The objections to the present system of educa- 
tion are as follows : first, the children take up 
the study of abstract subjects at too early an age ; 
second, the subjects succeed one another too 
rapidly, so that the thorough mastery of any one 
subject becomes impossible ; third, the children 
are compelled to remain seated and inactive for 
too great a period of time ; and, fourth, they have 
no practical work. 

Up to the age of seven years the child should 
be busied with nothing but manual work and 
games, after which theoretical work and prac- 



222 EVA RO DUE'S MODEL SERIES 

tical exercises, manual work, games, and gym- 
nastics should be combined in such a way that 
one exercise will relievo another, and prevent 
the child from growing tired. 

The books in use must be brief, and some 
reading-book should be used in every class. 
The greater part of the time should be devoted 
to the art of reading, writing, and speaking the 
mother tongue. Courses in moral instruction, 
the rules for health, and the laws and customs of 
the country should ha ol)ligatory in every school. 

Girls at the age of thirteen or fourteen should 
receive instruction in matters pertaining to the 
home, and boys of the same age should be taught 
the various kinds of manual work. 

Froebel's system may 1)0 applied to children up 
to the fifth year. From the fifth to the eighth 
year suitable manual work should be provided, 
with the use of light tools; from the eighth to 
the eleventh year, manual work with larger and 
heavier tools, in various kinds of wood suitable 
for the making of simple models ; and from tlie 
eleven til to the thirteenth year, the Sloyd Sys- 
tem of Niiiis will be found very valuable. 

Eva Rodhe. 

GoTiiENRURf;, Fchniary, 1801. 



THE EVA ROD LIE MODELS 



233 



THE EVA RODHE MODEL SERIES. 

(A Series fur Children from Ave to eight yearn of age.) 

List of the Models. 

All the models are to bo made of thin birch or cedar wood 
the thickness to be about one fourth of an inch. 

I. Fish-line winder.* 
II. Key label.* 
III. Sewing stand.* 
IV. Thread paper.* 



V. Palette (play toy).* 
VI. Cutting board.* 
VII. Darning-needle.* 
VIII. Bottle label.* 
IX. Clothes hanger (play 
toy).* 
X. Plant label.* 
XI. Stocking board (play 
toy).* 
XII. Chopping board (play 
toy).* 

XIII. Potter's knife (play 

toy).* 

XIV. Shovel (play toyj.* 
XV. Leaf.* 

XVI. Flower stick.* 
XVII. Butter knife (play 
toy).* 
XVIII. Baker's shovel (play 
toy).* 



XIX. Glass stand.* 
XX. Clothes-pin.* 
XXI. Pointer.* 
XXII. Pvibbon holder.* 

XXIII. Picture frame (play 

toy).* 

XXIV. Flower-pot foot.* 
XXV. Flower-pot spade.* 

XXVI. Flower-pot hoe.* 
XXVII. Paper-cutter.* 
XXVIII. Penholder.* 
XXIX. Ladder. 
XXX. Lace winder (used 
in knitting).* 
XXXI. Leaf.* 
XXXII. Bean-sling (play 
toy).* 

XXXIII. Crochet-needle. 

XXXIV. Knife-holder. 
XXXV. Bread-board in 

form of a fish 
(play toy).* 
XXXVI. Soldier (play toy). 
XXXVII. Castanets.* 



* Drawings of the starred models will be found on pj). 227-2o4. 



234 



EVA RODHE'S MODEL SERIES 



XXXVIII. Jack in the box.* 
XXXIX. Stand.* 
XL. Egg-cup. 
XLI. Toothbrush hold- 
er. 
XLII. Ironing board. 
XLIII. Desk protector. 
XLIV. Frame saw (play 
toy). 



XLV. Key-rack. 
XLVI. Crocodile (letter 
o p e n e r), (play 
toy). 
XLVII. Sledge (play toy). 
XLVIII. Easel.* 
XLIX. Roller-stand.* 

L. Horse and ride r 
(play toy). 



THE EVA RODHE MODELS. 



Models No8. II. and XXVII. furnish an illus- 
ation of the metl 
models of this series. 



tration of the method of making all of the 



Model No. n. 
Key Label of thin Birch or Cedar. 

A j^iece of wood somewhat larger than the 
model is placed in the vise of the bench. By 
means of a spokeshave its rough sides ^ are planed 
doAvn, and they are smoothed with a scraper. 
The teacher should draw a straight line close to 
one of the edges with rule. The child is to saw 
oif close to this line. The edge is now to be 
smoothed with file. With try-square draw a 

^ Here, as in the " Nilils Series," the expression " sides " 
refers to the two broad surfaces ; " edges," to the two narrow 
surfaces ; " ends," to the two in which are the extremities of 
the fibers. 



THE EVA RODUE MODELS 225 

line close to one of the ends, straight across one 
of the sides. Saw out and file down to this 
second line. Lay off' 7 cm., or 2f| in., along 
the edge, and draw a line across one of the 
sides. With compass lay off* a distance of 2 cm., 
or W in., and describe a semicircle. Saw out 
and file down. The hole is bored with brad-awl. 
Smooth with scraper and sand-paper. 

Model No. XXVII. 
Paper-cutter of thin Birch or Cedar. 

Plane down with spokeshave as in previous 
model. A drawing of the model is made with 
pencil, rule, and try-square. Saw close to the 
lines and file down. The cutting edge of the 
model is made with spokeshave, file, and scraper, 
working first on one side, and then on the other. 
The teacher should mark on the object how 
much is to be worked away. Smooth the model 
with sand-paper. 

Experience has taught us that children of 
five to nine years of age should not be permitted 
to use the knife, as they are apt to cut themselves. 
The tools used in the Eva Rodhe Series are the 
saw, file, hammer, bit, spokeshave, scraper, brad- 
awl, marking awl, compass, meter measure or 
rule, and try-square. 



326 BVA BOBHE'S MODEL SEBlEti 

It is best to allow the child to use the saw for 
a few lessons before he begins the making of the 
models. Very little sand-paper should be used, 
and that only where it is absolutely necessary. 

The tools are somewhat smaller than ordinary 
mechanics' tools, being made of such a size and 
weight as not to overtax the strength of the 
child. 



THE EVA ROUHE M0DEL8 



227 



No. 1. 



No. 2. 



No. 4. 




I L.:;,.. 






No. 3. 




y 


rK 


4 



No. 5. 





228 



I<JVA liOBHU'lS MOUEL SERIES 



No. 9 



No. 10. 



No. IJ. 




THE EVA RODHE MODELS 



239 



No. 15. 



No. 16. 



No. 17. 




No. IS. 



[■ f T T 




330 EVA EO DEE'S MODEL SERIES 

No. 19. No. 2S. 




No. 24. 




No. 21. 



No. 22. 



No. 25. 




"it 



•«-l->^l-x-l-*^l-^ 



THE EVA ROD HE MODELS 



231 



Wo. 2G. 



No. 27. 



No. 28. 




2'62 EVA RODHE'S MODEL SERIES 

No. 31. 




No. .•)•; 




THE EVA RODHE MODELS 



233 



No. 38. 



— 




^ 


' i ' " 
















-ZM 



EVA RODHE'S MODEL SERIES 



No. 48. 




-u-^h- 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE PROGRESS OF THE SLOYD IN THE ELE- 
MENTARY PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 



EXTENSION OF THE MOVEMENT IN EUROPE 
AND AMERICA. 

IN 1870 the Sloyd was first taught in some of 
the primary schools of Sweden. Secretary 
of State Carlson, who at that time was also at 
the head of the ecclesiastical department, took a 
great interest" in this question, and in 1877 he 
introduced a bill in the '' Rikstag " (Congress), 
suggesting the adoption of a system of manual 
work for all the schools throughout the king- 
dom. As a direct consequence of his resolution, 
there appeared on the lltli of September of that 
year a royal mandate to the effect that to each 
school where the Sloyd had been taught a 
yearly stipend of 75 kroner ($21.00) should be 
paid. This was intended to meet the expense 
of the material to be used.^ At this time a grant 

' In Sweden, the avera,2;e cost for wood used by one eliild 
is al»out 50 ore (14 cents) per year, the child working four 
hours a week and thirty-six weeks per year. In Stockholm, 

235 



23G THE PROGRESS OF THE SLOYD 

of 1,500 kroner was paid each year to about 200 
schools. However, the number of schools in 
which the Sloyd was taught increased so rapidly 
that in 1889 1,278 schools were receiving a sub- 
vention. 

In 1876 a private normal Sloyd school was 
established in Karlstad, and in 1877 the govern- 
ment laid a proposition l)efore the '' Rikstag " 
to introduce the Sloyd in all of the jniblic 
seminaries for teachers. At this time, as well 
as in 1880 (when the same question was moved 
by individual members), the " Rikstag " rejected 
the proposition, and it was not until 1887 that 
it was finally agreed to introduce the work in 
three public normal colleges — Karlstad, Lund, 
and Hernosand. 

The " Landsting " (State Assemblies), the Hus- 
hallningssallskap (Industrial and Agricultural 
Associations), and several prominent private 
persons had worked zealously for this purpose. 
The Board of Aldermen of Stockholm introduced 
the Sloyd in their city schools in 187(3. In 
Gothenburg, it had been introduced on a small 
scale in 1872, and five years later it was taught 
in all the schools. 

tlie cliildren work forty-one weeks, and seven and a half hours 
per week, and tlie average cost is one kroner (28 cents). 



THE MOVEMENT IN EUROPE AND AMERICA 237 

At first, the work consisted in teaching the 
elements of the various trades. In Stoclvholm, 
the transition to a regular educational manual 
training system took place in 1882, and in 
Gothenburg in 1887. In Gefle, Norkoping, Lin- 
koping, Malmo, and various other towns, the 
educational Sloyd was taught from the outset. 
In the summer of 1887 a general meeting of 
Swedish teachers was held in Gothenburg. Uni- 
versal satisfaction was expressed as to tlie results 
of this work. The academical authorities at 
Upsala and Lund have offered their students 
opportunities to do Sloyd work during certain 
hours of each day. 

At the Naas Sloyd Normal College, the 
method of instruction was originally worked 
out. Though the Sloyd is not a compulsory sub- 
ject, there are in Sweden nearly 1,500 schools out 
of a possible 3,800, which have introduced the 
teaching of the " Naiis System." Since the Niias 
was established in 1875, up to September, 1890, 
1,349 teachers (1,060 of them being Swedes) have 
taken longer or shorter courses there. 

In Nonvay, the " Storting " (Congress) of 1806 
accepted the proposition of the government, and 
decided to give to every public school in wliich 
Sloyd was taught tlie sum of 80 kroner. The 



288 THE PROGRESS OF THE SLOYD 

Sloyd is taught in six public normal colleges, and 
also at the " Fredrikshaldssloyd-forenings Arbeids- 
kole " (Fredrickshall Sloyd Association Working 
School). The instruction in all of the schools 
is in wood Sloyd, and the pupils who have had 
at least two hundred hours' instruction, and have 
done the required amount of Avork, receive a 
special mention of this fact in their graduation 
diplomas. According to the new Norwegian 
school law, the Sloyd is compulsory for boys of 
the age of eleven and twelve years, and optional 
for younger or older pupils. 

By the statute of May, 1866, manual work was 
made obligatory for the country schools, and 
oj^tional for the city schools, of Finland. In all 
teachers' seminaries, some manual work is at 
})resent being taught. In the public schools there 
are many lady teachers, and special courses have 
been arranged for them. The Finnish Hushall- 
ningssallskap encourage this work b)^ giving 
yearly stipends and distributing models and 
drawings. 

Educational Sloyd is of recent date in Den- 
mark. In the autumn of 1885 a Danish Sloyd 
Union was formed, which assisted the establish- 
ment of a Teachers' Sloyd School in Copenhagen, 
and the introduction of this work into ten 



THE MOVEMENT IN EUROPE AND AMERICA 339 

private high schools. It is generally in the high 
schools that the Sloyd has been carried on. In 
1882 the " Kjobenhavn-Husflidsforening " (Copen- 
hagen Home Industrial Society) established a 
large Sloyd school for the children of the " Koni- 
niuneskolerne " (Public Schools). 

In Germany, the *' Deutscher Verein fiir erzieh- 
lische Knaben-handarbeit " (German Association 
for Educational Manual Work for Boys), which 
counts among its members some of the most 
prominent men in Germany, has been very suc- 
cessful in its propaganda in behalf of this 
movement, especially so Avhen we take into 
consideration the conservatism that has always 
existed among German teachers. The govern- 
ments of Prussia, Saxony, and Alsace-Lorraine 
have given both moral and material support 
to the system. Sloyd schools have been organ- 
ized in a great many cities, and the German 
Government, which yearly calls a congress of 
the friends of Sloyd instruction, has founded a 
normal college in Leipzig. 

In southern Austria- Hungary and in Bohemia, 
the movement has progressed very rapidly. The 
Sloyd has been introduced as an elective subject 
in the elementary schools. In Hungary this 
W(^rk dates back to 1870, when the minister of 



340 THE PROGRESS OF THE SLOYIJ 

}nihlic instruction issued an order that instruc- 
tion be given in at least one of the following 
subjects to all the boys of the primary schools ; 
viz., agriculture, gardening, silk-cultivation, or 
Sloyd. In 1881 manual training was made com- 
})ulsory in twenty-four state seminaries for 
teachers, and in the Normal College of Buda 
Pesth a three years' course was introduced. 

In Russia, in the State Normal College of St. 
Petersburg and in several other teachers' semi- 
naries of that city, since 1884, Sloyd has been 
taught. For lack of means, the work has pro- 
gressed but slowly. In the Baltic provinces, 
much has been done to further the Swedish 
system, ^ 

The local governments of several of the can- 
tons of Switzerland have, during the last seven 
years, supported private efforts for establishing 
Sloyd courses for teachers. 

About four years ago, a commission of seven- 
teen gentlemen from Jlahj was sent by the 
Italian Minister of Public Instruction to study 
the various manual training systems of Europe, 
and more especially the Swedish system of 
Sloyd instruction. Each member of this body 
took a course of Naiis, and has since then per- 
sonallv directed a class for teachers at home. 



THE MOVEMENT IN EUROPE AND A3IERIGA 241 

The law of March 28, 1882, passed by the 
Chamber of Deputies and the Senate in France, 
made manual training compulsory in all normal 
as well as public elementary schools. At that 
time, the " Ecole normale speciale pour I'enseigne- 
ment du travail manuel " (Special Teachers' 
Seminary for Manual Training Instruction) was 
established. Though this institution has been 
abolished, the study of this subject is carried on 
in about one hundred schools of Paris ; tlie most 
prominent school is tlie '* Rue Tournefort." At 
the international meeting in Havre, in 1885, it 
was stated that manual work was a necessary 
feature in every rational system of education. 

The officers of the late liberal government of 
Belgium had already begun to make arrangements 
to introduce the Sloyd in normal and primary 
schools, Avhen through the election of 1884 they 
were compelled to go out of office. The members 
of the present clerical ministerial party expressed 
their views in 1887, at which time the minister 
of public instruction stated that he had the 
greatest sympathy with the movement, and that 
the government would soon take active steps in 
the matter. As a result, courses for teachers 
were formed, all of wliich have been very largely 
attended. Two societies — " Societe nationale du 



242 THE PROGRESS OF THE SLOYD 

travail inanuel " and " Le Sloyd " — have worked 
for its introduction in the public schools. 

In England, a very active propaganda in favor 
of the adoption of the Swedish Sloyd has been 
going on. The most recent school laws are 
strongly in sympathy with the movement, and 
many school boards have made arrangements 
for the introduction of the system. A groat many 
teachers have studied at Naiis. Several societies 
— ^"The Union of Sloyd Teachers Trained at 
Naas" and the "Sloyd Association" — have been 
organized by those interested in the matter. 

The new school law of Scotland is even stronger 
in its Sloyd clause than the English law. 

American teachers have shown a deep interest 
in educational manual work. Various systems 
of manual training have been introduced in the 
school courses. In New York, Boston, San Fran- 
cisco, and other places, the Swedish Sloyd has 
been introduced in private institutions. 

Argentine Republic, Chile, and Uruguay have sent 
rein'csentatives to Nails to study the Sloyd, with a 
view to adopting it in their primary scliools. 

The Government of Japan has the intention of 
introducing this work during the ensuing year. 

Holland, Spain, and Brazil have likewise taken 
active steps in this direction. 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 




011 856 767 5 # 



' h •^/»Wf\N^^*W^?fc^'W*fc